Alternative Medicine Glossary

absent healing (distant healing, remote healing) : A form of healing that involves the projection of healing energy over a distance.

active ingredient : A product component responsible for an effect the product was designed to have.

acupoint (acupuncture point, she xue) : Generally, any of an indefinite number of points on or near the surface of a human or other mammal that, allegedly, are susceptible to healthful activation and communicate with internal organs.

acupressure : A treatment that involves the surface stimulation of acupoints digitally, manually, or with tools held in the hand.

acupuncture : An ancient Chinese medical system over 5000 years old, recently revived in China and becoming popular in the West. It deals with subtle energy flows (chi) in the body related to the cosmic principles of Yin and Yang. The balance of these energies in the human body affects health and disease. Acupuncture therapy alters these energy flows by inserting fine needles at key pressure points, for varying periods of time. Anesthesia for surgery can also be affected by acupuncture.

adept : An individual highly experienced and proficient in a particular magical craft i.e. an esoteric master.

adrenal glands : Each kidney has an adrenal gland located above it. The adrenal is divided into an inner medulla and an outer cortex. The medulla synthesizes amine hormones. The cortex secretes steroid hormones. Stimulation of the cortex by the nervous system causes the “fight or flight” response.

affirmations : Declarations for manifesting and creating what you want in your life.

aikido: Spiritual discipline and self-defense method that uses grappling, throws, and non-resistance to debilitate opponents.

alchemy : Is the effect of the participation of thought interacting with energy to create matter, as matter is created with every thought, every motion of the mind of Christ.

alexander method : A means of integrating one’s mental, physical, and spiritual aspects. According to its theory, maintaining alignment of the head, neck, and back leads to optimum overall physical functioning. Fredrick Matthias Alexander concluded that faulty posture was responsible for diverse symptoms.

aloha : “May Love, Respect and Trust flow from me to you and from you return to me.” Real Love is a sharing and caring for others. The Aloha Spirit is doing things with Love and Respect.

alternative medicine (alt-care, alternative care, alternative-complementary healthcare [ACH], alternative healing, alternative healing therapies, alternative health, alternative therapeutics, alternative therapies, alt-med, complementary and alternative medicine [CAM], complementary care, complementary health care, complementary medicine [CM], complementary practices, extended therapeutics, Fringe Medicine, holistic healing, holistic health, holistic medicine, Mind-Body-Spirit medicine, natural healing, natural health, natural medicine, New Age medicine, non-proven therapy [NPT], nonstandard medicine, unconventional medicine, unconventional therapies, unconventional therapy, unorthodox healing, unorthodox therapies, holistic medicine) : Broadly, any or all health-related methods and practices for which scientific evidence concerning safety and efficacy is lacking or largely contradictory. Related expressions include “innovative medicine,” “integrated healthcare,” “integrative medicine,” “mind-body medicine,” “New Medicine,” and “planet medicine.”

amulet : An object charged with personal energies through ritual or meditation, often used to ward off a certain force or person.

angel : A spiritual being, especially in Persian, Jewish, Christian and Islamic theologies, that is commonly portrayed as being winged and as serving as God’s messengers. The spiritual guide of an individual.

archangel : An angel of high rank.

aromatherapy : The therapeutic use of fragrances and “essential oils” (the volatile oils distilled from plants), to improve the health and balance of body, mind and soul. For example, this technique is used to relax the nervous system, to stimulate circulation, lift depression; reduce inflammation and ease aches and pains.

arthritis : Inflammation of a joint or joints.

ascended masters : refers to those souls who supposedly, after many incarnations and life experiences, have mastered the lessons of the physical realm which is about balance, the games of emotions, learning to manifest and be in joy and then ascend – return to higher consciousness of thought and light. They have chosen to serve planet Earth in its Ascension process as mass consciousness is moving back to source.

Ashtar command : The Ashtar Command is an Intergalactic Alliance of etheric ships (Golden Light Fleet), human beings and angelic beings.

astral plane : A plane parallel to the physical world, traveled through by the astral body during projection.

astral travel : The experience, whether spontaneous or induced, of traveling through the astral realm in the form of the astral body.

astrology : is “the original art-science of human potential” with roots to 30,000 BCE, currently practiced in numerous branches or specialties. ‘Horoscopic’ & ‘Synastric’ astrology illustrate the Design of Life for each individual, partnership, or corporate, political, & other entity, having a place & beginning in Time. Astrologers (using charts, dials &/or graphs of Cosmic Dimensions) counsel on the most satisfying & productive life, attitudes & actions, forecasting development & probable outcome using Planetary Movement & Alignment. ‘Electional’ Astrology selects the best beginnings for desired outcomes. ‘GeoPolitical’ Astrology analyzes local & world conditions and forecasts socio-political developments. ‘Horary’ Astrology divines answers to questions. Professional Astrologers are often knowledgeable of, or trained in, other disciplines, therapies, or healing arts, including those in this Glossary-Resource. Astrology Guidance Jan and Keth are both professional astrologers.

A.T.C. : Certified Athletic Trainer.

Atlantis : A legendary island/continent said to have sunk beneath the ocean. It was located straddling the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and was broken up as a result of continental drift or a major natural disaster. It is supposed to have had a highly advanced civilization.

attune : To open up or bring different psyches into harmony. See also reiki.

aura: An energy field which surrounds living beings. An aura is most often visible only to those born with the skill to see it, or those who developed this ability. A visible aura contains various colors and tells about the spiritual and emotional persona of the plant, human, or creature surrounded by it. An aura can also be felt, heard, or sensed through other means.

aura analysis : Direct or indirect examination of the vital energy that envelops each human. To some the aura is perceptible others can analyze it through Kirlian photography. The colors of the aura reveal the personal traits of the subject. One can also associate auric colors with glands, organs, organ systems, and psychological states such as anger and boredom.

aura balancing : (aura cleansing, aura clearing, aura healing, auric healing): Multiform method characterized by treatment of the aura around a person’s head or body.

aurasomatherapy : A variation of color therapy and a form of aura balancing and chakra healing.

avatar : An earthly manifestation of one of the gods in human or animal form, e.g., Krishna is an avatar of Vishnu, Jesus is an avatar of Jehovah. A being through which God manifests himself. The spiritual founder of an age or a dynasty. Such a one has supposedly progressed beyond the need to be reincarnated.

awaken : Awakening 1. To rouse or emerge from sleep. 2. To make or become active or alert. 3. Become enlightened; see through the illusion of reality. Webster’s, Remember who you are a part of God/Goddess – All That Is. Moving Beyond Religion into Spirituality by ArchAngel Michael

ayurveda : (ancient Indian medicine, Vedic medicine): Ancient Hindu medical-metaphysical healing science based on the harmony of body, mind and universe through diet, exercise, herbs, and purification procedures. It emphasizes the capability of the individual for self-healing using natural remedies to restore balance. Allegedly, the most complete system of natural medicine and the mother of all healing arts. Ayurvedic theory includes a subtle anatomy that includes: nadis, canals that carry prana (cosmic energy) throughout the body; chakras, “centers of consciousness” that connect body and soul; and marmas, points on the body beneath which vital structures (physical and/or subtle) intersect. Ayurvedic diagnosis involves examination of the eyes, face, lips, tongue, nails, and pulse. The pulse is important because of the belief that the heart is the seat of the underlying intelligence of nature ie human consciousness.


balneotherapy : The treatment of illness by baths (e.g., mud baths).

Bach flower therapy (Bach flower essence method, Bach flower essence system) : Homeopathic system of diagnosis and treatment developed in the 1930:s by British physician Edward Bach (1886-1936). Bach held that disease was essentially beneficial and that its design was to subject the personality to the Divine will of the soul. He psychically discovered the specific healing effects of 38 wildflowers. The life force (“soul quality” or “energy wavelength”) of each of these flowers is transferable to water and thence to humans.

bardo : A human soul between the stages of after-death and rebirth.

bioactive : Chemically affecting a living being.

biofeedback : Any method that involves electronic monitors wherewith one tries to influence one’s autonomic processes, such as the beating of the heart. Forms of biofeedback include electromyography biofeedback, which measures muscle tension, and thermal biofeedback, which measures skin temperature.

biorhythm : The system that deals with the three biological cycles of humans, the body’s physical, emotional and intellectual energy based on date of birth. Used to determine the patterns of a person’s critical days and periods of high and low energy.

bladder : Organ that stores urine after its formation by the kidneys. Average normal capacity of the adult bladder is about half a liter.

bodhisattava : A being who has supposedly earned the right to enter into Nirvana or into illumination, but instead voluntarily turns back from that state in order to aid humanity in attaining the same goal. The Christ is said to be a Bodhisattva.

bowen therapy : A specific sequence of rolling moves done across superficial muscles, tendons and nerves. Thought to encourage the parasympathetic nervous system to self-correct tension and other physical ailments.

Buddha : Sanskrit meaning Enlightened One. There are many who have attained Buddhahood, or supreme enlightenment. The best known is Siddhartha Gautama Buddha (586-511 BC). He was born in northeastern India and received spiritual enlightenment through meditation. During his lifetime, his spiritual insights and teachings became a major alternative to Hinduism throughout India.

Buddhism : World religion based on the spiritual teachings of Siddhartha Gautama Buddha. There are a number of versions or sects of Buddhism generally teaching paths to Nirvana (enlightenment or bliss) though the four noble truths (recognizing existence and source of suffering) and the eight fold path (correct understanding, behavior and meditation).

bulimia (binge-eating syndrome, bulimarexia, bulimia nervosa, BN) : That eating disorder characterized by recurrent binge eating; recurrent willful vomiting and/or other recurrent inappropriate compensatory measures to prevent weight gain (e.g., laxative abuse, diuretic abuse, or overexercising); and an excessive influence of body weight or shape on self-evaluation.


C.A. : Certified Acupuncturist.

cabala (cabbala, cabbalah, kabala, kabbala, kabbalah, kabbalism, Qabalah, Qabbalah) : An eclectic mystical system of ancient Jewish origin analogous to yoga. It encompasses angelology, demonology, meditation, and prayer.

CAM (Complementary Alternative Medicine) : An acronym used by researchers, academics and health professionals to refer to complementary medicine.

centering : Grounding your energy through meditation often before rituals or healing treatments to help harness and direct the balanced energy.

chakra : Any of an indefinite number of yogic alleged invisible bodily openings for “life energy.”

chakra energy centers : Chakra is Sanskrit for wheel, or vortex, and it refers to each of the seven energy centers of which our consciousness is composed.

chakra healing (chakra balancing, chakra energy balancing, chakra therapy, chakra work) : Any method akin to aura balancing and relating to chakras.

chakras : Energy centers in the body which are best cleansed, opened, and balanced. Too much or too little energy in one chakra can be the cause of health problems or frustrations in everyday life.

channeling : Transmission of information or energy from a nonphysical source through humans. These persons called “channels,” “channelers,” or “mediums” are sometimes in an apparent trance during the communication. Sources include angels, discarnate former humans, extraterrestrials, and levels of consciousness.

channeling prophesy : speaking in tongues, information from light, loving, higher consciousness’ spiritual beings, Ascended Masters, Archangels, Angels, Saints, etc. delivered through a human. Be sure to pick a higher consciousness light and loving station. Not in our context communication with the deceased. In a Christian religious context would be called prophecy or speaking in tongues.

chant : Repetition of magical phrases, syllables, or words to produce a desired effect as well as bring the chanter to a deeper meditative state. See also Mantra.

chi : Chinese term for the all-encompassing universal life force that flows in and around our body. Also Ki, Prana, Mana and other names in other belief systems.

Chinese medicine : originated over 3,000 years ago, but stagnated for centuries; overall its development has been slow. It probably stems from shamanism. The basis of Chinese medicine is Taoism according to which spirits (shen) inhabit the body and take care of its functions. The foundational text of Chinese medicine—known as the Classic of Internal Medicine, the Huangdi Neijing, The Yellow Emperor’s Classic, etc. was completed by the first century C.E.

chiropractor : Healer using therapy that attributes disease to neural malfunction with treatment primarily based on manipulation of the spinal column. Originally known as a healer who used his hands to manipulate the body.

Christ : (Greek) Pure, perfect, ideal, or anointed. The only begotten Son of God, the creator or essence of all that can be known.

church : comes from the Greek word ekklesia. Ekklesia is not a religious word as originally used among the Greeks. Ekklesia is a compound word meaning “ek, out of, and klesis, a calling” (W.E. Vine, vol. 1 pg. 83). The word is used in its basic, secular sense in Acts 19: 32, 39 – an assembly and, then, a lawful assembly.

clairaudience : 1. The supposed power to perceive sounds (e.g., music and voices) not within the known extent of human perception. 2. The supposed power to perceive sounds from “alien dimensions,” such as the voices of spirits.

clairvoyant : One who claims to have clairvoyance, the ability to obtain information in a way that does not involve using any of the known human senses.

cleansing : Purification through a ritual bath or through meditation to cleanse the psyche. Traditionally performed before every ritual.

collective unconscious (universal consciousness) : Alleged inborn psychological bedrock–common to all humans but varying with the particular society, people, or race–that enables telepathy.

color therapy : (chromopathy, chromotherapy, color healing): Method that states that colors — e.g. of light, food, and clothing — have wide ranging curative effects. Supposedly, cures result from correction of “color imbalances.” Color therapy often is a form of chakra healing.

complementary medicine : Various practices such as meditation, homeopathy, massage, etc., that are not considered as part of traditional Western medicine. They are most often used in conjunction with conventional treatments such as surgery and drugs. This approach also focuses on developing a strong relationship of trust and care between patient and caregiver.

Confucius : (551-479 BC) The most famous philosopher of ancient China. According to tradition, he was born in Lu, China. Author of the Ch’un Ch’iu (Spring and Autumn Annals) and possible compiler of some early poetry.

conversion : Turning from one religion (or no religion) to a particular religion.

core energy healing : inner self healing process.

cranio-sacral therapy : is a system that employs gentle manual body contact to palpate and interact with the patients cranio-sacral system. Practitioners believe that this is the primary physiological system that sustains and distributes the self-healing energies of the body. The action of the cranio-sacral system imparts a subtle but palpable rhythmic motion to the entire body structure.

crystal ball : A ball made of quartz crystal or glass that is used for scrying.

crystal healing : Many cultures have imbued crystals with mystical qualities and it has long been believed that they both store and conduct awakening-healing energies. Different crystals and stones are said to resonate at different vibrational frequencies, offering varying healing possibilities.

crystalline children : A new breed of humanity, here to accelerate the Awakening of the Planet.

crystalomanc : Fortune telling by gazing into a crystal rock or crystal ball.

C.S.W. : Certified Social Worker.

cupping : Cupping is a form of Chinese pain therapy in which the practitioner creates suction in a cup and applies it to the body so that the skin is drawn up and around the cup. Cupping brings fresh blood to the area thereby improving circulation. It helps open up the chest and the lungs. Most commonly, it’s used for aches and pains and respiratory problems.


D.Ac. : Doctor of Acupuncture.

Dalai Lama : Spiritual leader of Tibetan Buddhism, considered an emanation of Avalokiteshvara, an enlightened being who embodies the compassion of past, present, and future Buddhas. Each Dalai Lama, regarded as a reincarnation of the previous one, is identified through a combination of oracles, dreams, and visions. The present and fourteenth Dalai Lama, born in eastern Tibet in 1935, has lived in exile in India since 1959, nine years after the Chinese takeover of Tibet. He received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1989 for peaceful efforts to preserve Tibetan culture in his homeland and among refugee communities. He has worked to democratize the Tibetan government in exile, and is considering new methods for choosing the next Dalai Lama.

D.C. : Doctor of Chiropractic.

D.D. : Doctor of Divinity.

Dharma : The ultimate law, or doctrine, as taught by Buddha, which consists of the Four Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path.

D.H.M. : Doctor of Homeopathic Medicine.

diaphragm : Wide muscular partition separating the thoracic, or chest cavity, from the abdominal cavity (just below ribs). Contraction and expansion of the diaphragm are significant in breathing and in stimulating digestion.

diamond sutra : A Mahayana Buddhist scriptural text that expounds the doctrine of the Perfection of Wisdom. The Diamond Sutra was written in India in Sanskrit and then carried into East Asia, where it was translated into Chinese (ca. 400) and became one of the most revered summaries of the teachings of Mahayana Buddhism.

digestive system : A series of connected organs whose purpose is to break down, or digest, the food we eat. Food is made up of large, complex molecules, which the digestive system breaks down into smaller, simple molecules that can be absorbed into the bloodstream. The simple molecules travel through the bloodstream to all of the body’s cells, which use them for growth, repair and energy.

divination (divining) : Alleged supernatural (a) foreseeing of events or (b) attainment of occult knowledge.

divine energy : 7 keys meditation program

divine healing energy : emotional energetic healing.

divine power : religious healing.

D.N. : 1. Doctor of Naprapathy . 2. Doctor of Nutripathy. 3. Doctor of Naturology.

DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) : Any of various acids that are found in cell nuclei and are the principal components of chromosomes; the molecular basis of heredity.

D.O. : Doctor of Osteopathy.

doctor : 1. One whose occupation is to treat diseases, particularly a physician, dentist, or veterinarian with an appropriate license. 2. A teacher (particularly at a college or university), a scholar, or one who holds a postgraduate degree (especially a Ph.D. degree). 3. A shaman.

dowsing : The skill of divining for underground sources of water or other practical and spiritual matters by means of a divining rod or variety of other means, such as the pendulum, or even by device less techniques. Used to locate people, objects, or substances, and to diagnose illnesses.

D.Pharm. : Doctor of Pharmacy.

dream changing : Form of visual therapy. Dream Changing is a technique that involves attempting to turn unsatisfactory dreams into satisfying daydreams.

dreamwork : Any systematic inquiry into or use of dreams with the purpose of healing or self-development.

Druidism : An ancient Celtic religion that has undergone a modern revival.

dynamis : homeopathy.


ecchymosis : 1. An epidermal or mucous membrane spot discolored by the coagulation of blood from ruptured blood vessels. 2. The process of such discoloration.

Ed.D. : Doctor of Education.

edema (dropsy) : The presence of excessive watery fluid in intercellular (especially subcutaneous) spaces or in a bodily cavity; the condition characterized by such presence; and/or the swelling that the presence of excessive fluid causes.

EFT (Emotional Freedom Technique) : This technique was invented by Gary Craig. This is an incredibly simple series of tapping that the clients can learn to use for themselves. EFT works on the same energy meridians and acupressure points used by acupuncture practitioners. The client lightly taps pressure points while repeating phrases after the therapist, about the topic that they are working on.

Electroacupuncture (electric acupuncture, electric acupuncture therapy, electrical acupuncture) : Application of electricity to acupoints, with or without needles.

5 elements : The 5 major elements in nature and magic. Earth, water, fire, air, and spirit that encompasses all of the other elements and is not visible.

embodyment : Form of aura balancing and chakra healing that combines inner child work, sacred touch (a variation of CranioSacral Therapy), toning, and other methods.

empowerment : An individual’s assertion of personal power, energy, force, and strength in all fields: spiritual, physical, mental and magical.

energy healing : We are all energy and are all connected. Energy Healing balances and harmonizes your energy to bring about a healthy state of being.

enzyme (natural catalyst) : Any of numerous proteins and protein-nonprotein compounds that living cells produce and that can initiate, or affect the speed of, specific chemical reactions.

erythema : Inflammation or abnormal redness of skin or mucous membranes, specially epidermal redness that is localized or patchy and caused by congestion and dilatation of capillaries.

esoteric healing : Esoteric Healing is about making whole at every level, not just physically. It helps to contact your higher purpose or ‘true self’ and bring this into harmony with everyday life.
ESP (Extra Sensory Perception) : It encompasses most paranormal abilities such as telepathy, precognition, and clairvoyance.

eternal life : 1. To be immortal, 2. To live with God (Eternal being one of God’s names).

etheric body : A term sometimes used to refer to the Astral Body, but which actually refers to that vehicle or body whose density lies between that of the astral and physical bodies.

exogenous : Originating or developed outside a particular system (e.g., a living being or a bodily cell) or induced or introduced in a particular system by exterior factors or agents.

exorcism : Any method to expel from an individual or place: 1. Satan, 2. Some other demon, 3. Multiple evil spirits, or 4. An offensive ghost (discarnate human). Exorcism may include commanding the alleged offender, attempts at persuasion, rituals, special prayers, spells, or symbolism.

expressive arts : The use of visual art, crafts, song, dance, movement and other forms of expression to foster personal insights and to access one’s inner healing resources.


fallen angels : The rebellion of Satan/Lucifer/Iblis against God, prompted by the creation of the first human being in the divine image and the command that the angels give it homage led to their expulsion from heaven.

faith healing : 1. Method wherein one makes an appeal to God or a spirit to participate in healing others. 2. A group of methods that encompasses absent healing, Christian Science, the laying on of hands, mesmerism, and shamanism.

fate : The preordained result of life. Kismet, Karma, destiny are other names.

feldenkrais : A two branched system: Awareness Through Movement and Functional Integration. Attempts to offset the effects of gravity, making the participant more aware of their body. It has an emotional component, attempting to return the participant to an early childhood state, undoing emotional/cultural programming.

feng shui : Ancient Chinese art of orienting objects and towns to promote a healthy flow of chi.

fire walking : A ritual means of demonstrating an individual’s possession of extraordinary powers by appearing unharmed after walking barefoot across a bed of hot coals. Fire walking serves as a religious ordeal or test.

five flements (five fhases): Earth, Metal, Water, Wood, and Fire as manifestations (“phases” or “transformations”) of chi.

flower essences : Vibrational remedies, taken internally (or rubbed on the skin, or added to bathwater). They help to re-balance the body’s etheric electrical system.

folk medicine : practices based on common sense, superstition, and tradition.

food combining : Any practice postulating that the degree of a meal’s healthiness depends chiefly (a) on the proportion of carbohydrate, fat, protein, and acid in each of its components, or (b) on nonmaterial attributes of these components.

foot reflexology : A cousin of acupuncture. Involves pressing reflex areas on the feet. Foot Reflexology cleanses the mind and body and revitalizes energy.

fortune telling : predicting the future using paranormal powers.

four noble truths : The essential teaching of early Buddhism. After attaining enlightenment, the Buddha proclaimed his insight into the nature of existence in a sermon on the Four Noble Truths: 1. Suffering. 2. The Origin of Suffering (craving). 3. The Cessation of Suffering (nirvana). 4. The Path leading to the Cessation of Suffering (accessible to all who follow the way set forth by the Buddha).


gall bladder : Muscular organ serving as a reservoir for bile. It is a pear-shaped sac on the under surface of the right lobe of the liver just below the lower ribs.

gassho (Japanese) : A Mudra (hand posture) seen in Bodhisattvas. In the Gassho Mudra you place the palms and fingers together in a prayer like position in front of the mouth with the fingertips at a point just short of the bottom of the nose.

gem therapy : The wearing of precious and semiprecious stones for healing, for example, bloodstones for hemorrhages and rubies for chills.

gemstone-reiki therapy : One of the postulates of Gemstone-Reiki Therapy is that gemstones concentrate “light-filled powers” and “color vibrations” into chakras.

geomancy : Divination by the earth. A system of divination by means of designs drawn randomly on the ground with sand or similar powders or by detecting, through calculations and signs, the forces in the landscape.

goji : Small red berry thought to contain an excellent anti-aging agent.

grace : God’s freely given Love, no matter what you do or who you are.

grounding : Sending excess energy generated during a ritual into the earth back to the God or the Goddess from which it came.

guardian angel : A supernatural being that acts as a guide and protector for individuals or nations.

guardian spirit : A supernatural helper.

guided imagery : An process with a therapist in which patients evoke their own images and feelings to relax. It augments treatment for a range of ailments from chronic stress and high blood pressure to major diseases like AIDS and cancer.

guru : Literally a teacher or spiritual advisor. However, in India and Tibet it means one at a very high level of consciousness.


Hair analysis (hair element analysis, hair mineral analysis, hair-shaft analysis) : An diagnostic technique that involves laboratory analysis of a sample of hair. It allegedly can be a “useful guide” to bodily well-being.

halo : Light, usually in the shape of a circle, around head of a holy person.

hand reflexology : Form of reflexology whose focus is the hand. It is one of the two basic modes of zone therapy.

hara : The vital energy center of the human body. It is located at the second chakra, (2 fingers below the navel) internally.

hatha yoga : A major Hindu discipline. Akin to kundalini yoga, hatha yoga . The word “hatha” combines two Sanskrit words: ha, which means “the breath of the sun” (prana), and tha, “the breath of the moon” (apana).

hathor : Egyptian. Represented as a woman with cow’s horns between which hangs a solar disc. Hathor is concerned with beauty, love and marriage, nurturing, and women giving birth. Mother and wife of Ra or Nurse and wife of Horus. Hathor is also a goddess of death and offers comfort to the newly dead.

healing : Creating space for people to feel comfortable about making changes in their life and bring it into harmony.

healing crisis : During the initial phase of healing, as your body begins to detoxify and your vital energy begins to repair and rebuild internal organs, you may experience headache, tiredness, flu-like symptoms, fatigue or other symptoms.

healing touch : Healing Touch balances and aligns the body’s energy system. It increases relaxation and helps to decrease the stress response, which promotes positive changes in attitudes, behaviors, thoughts, and emotions.

healthcare : Systems whose goal is to improve human health.

heart : Hollow muscular organ that pumps blood through the body. The heart, blood, and blood vessels make up the circulatory system, which is responsible for distributing oxygen and nutrients to the body and carrying away carbon dioxide and other waste products. The heart is the circulatory system’s power supply.

heart disease : Any condition that adversely affects circulation.

heqet : (Heket) is the goddess of childbirth, creation and grain germination. She is depicted as a frog, or a woman with the head of a frog, connecting her with water.

herbalism : Ancient approach to “healing” using plants, or substances derived from plants, to treat a range of illnesses or to improve the functioning of bodily systems.

herbalism practitioners : exercise their knowledge of herbal synergy which is based on using plants which contain a mix of active ingredients for medicinal effect.

herbal medicine (botanical medicine, herbology, phytomedicine) : The use of natural plant substances to treat illness.

herbology : Purported science and art of using plants for healing.

higher self : Non-physical, true self. The enlightened, “actual” persona of an individual as opposed to what the person seems to be.

hieroglyph : A pictographic character in ancient Egyptian writing system, invented before 3000 BC. Today almost any pictographic character.

Hinduism : A world religion of Indian origin. The gods (Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva) are commonly interpreted as representations of the various aspects of the divine (Brahman). Human beings progress to the ultimate realization of their oneness with rahman (often called Nirvana) through Reincarnation according to the law of Karma.

holistic healing : health care focusing on the “whole self” (body, mind and spirit) and natural or spiritual cures. The system embraces traditional and New Age therapy.

holistic medicine : A healing approach that considers the person as a whole—body, mind and soul. Thus optimum health involves all three elements and their care.

holographic repatterning : based on the idea that we are an energetic system with frequency patterns. As we identify the non-coherent frequency patterns we are in phase with and the coherent frequency patterns we are out of phase with and return them to their optimal state of coherence, profound changes occur in our lives.

homeopath : A physician treating disease using minute doses of natural substances that would, in a healthy person, elicit the symptoms of the disease being treated.

homeopathy : Also known as the “way of similars”, homeopathy is to give the patient a minute dose of a substance which is known to induce the condition. Medicines prepared homeopathically stimulate the body’s own healing mechanism.

ho’oponopono : A putting to rights and achieving balance, Hawaiian Spiritual Practice of awakening and personal responsibility.

hormone : Chemical messengers produced by glands (e.g., adrenal, pituitary, etc.) having far-reaching effects throughout the body. Hormones regulate everything from growth and tissue repair to metabolism, reproduction and blood pressure.

horoscope : A chart drawn up through the art of astrology.

Horus : Pharaohs were incarnations of Horus, who conquered Seth the evil god of Upper Egypt. Seth was god of turmoil and confusion and murdered Osiris, Horus’s father. Horus avenged his father’s death and became the god of order and justice. The pharaoh became Horus on earth, the ruler Upper and Lower Egypt.

houses astrological : The twelve areas of your life in a birth chart or horoscope.

huna : Hawaiian for “secret.” Huna, is ancient knowledge enabling a person to connect to his or her highest wisdom. The “seven principles” of Huna are intended to bring about healing and harmony through the power of the mind.

hydromancy : Divination by liquid, especially water.

hydrotherapy : 1.Use of water to treat diseases (e.g. Pain). 2. External hydrotherapies (e.g., whirlpool baths) and internal hydrotherapy (e.g., colonic irrigation).

hypertension : An arterial condition characterized by elevated blood pressure.

hypnotherapy : The use of hypnotism to treat chronic pain or changes in behavior.

hypothalamus : A region in the brain beneath the thalamus; consists of nerve cells and controls a variety of autonomic functions aimed at maintaining homeostasis.


I Ching (Book of Change) : Chinese book for fortunetelling. Part of the Confucianistic canon, the quasi-religious philosophy dominating China until the early twentieth century. “I Ching” comes from the Mandarin words: yi (divination) and jing (classic or book). The I Ching features sixty-four hexagrams which symbolize quintessential conditions, such as happiness, humility, innocence, and tranquility.

illusion : something perceived as real but without basis in reality.

immortality : Life without death anytime in the future. Not exactly the same as eternal. Eternal means without being or end, immortal allows for a beginning.

Indigo children : or Violet Children. Children that do not respond to tried-and-true techniques and won’t be molded. Some are willful, precocious and brilliant; others have their own language or become easily detached.

initiation : 1. An event that acts as an expansion or transformation of a person’s consciousness. An initiate’s consciousness has to some degree been transformed so that he now perceives reality from a higher perspective. There are many types of initiation, either of spiritual or social nature. 2. A ritual elevating an individual to a higher office in a social or religious organization.

inner self : Refers to the inner divinity from which the being and personality evolve. The Unconscious, the Subconscious and the Higher Self.

inner smile : A component of the Tao System. Inner Smile is a relaxation technique that increases the flow of chi. Practitioners “smile inwardly” at organs and glands.

integrated body work : Massage, Energy and Bodywork therapies assisting with healing. They include Swedish, Thai, deep tissue and lymphatic massage therapies; CranialSacral, breathwork and Feldenkrais, bodywork techniques; Therapeutic Touch, Reiki and Jin Shin Jitsu energy therapies.

integrative medicine : Combines conventional Western medicine with alternative practices, which also include the inner healing processes of mind and spirit. Treatment plans offer personalized approaches, e.g. combining surgery and medications with imagery, nutritional supplements and lifestyle counseling.

intention : In magic and affirmation, the sense of purpose that leads to action.

intervention : In healthcare, any attempt (particularly one that is professional), or mode of attempting, to modify a medical situation.

intestine : Also called bowels, the portion of the digestive tract between the stomach and anus. In humans the intestine is divided into two major sections: the small intestine, which is about 6 m long, where the most extensive part of digestion occurs and where most food products are absorbed; and the large intestine, which has a larger diameter and is about 1.5 m long, where water is absorbed and from which solid waste material is excreted. Food and waste material are moved along the length of the intestine by rhythmic contractions of intestinal muscles; these contractions are called peristaltic movements.

invocation : The bringing of an exterior divine power into a ritual or magical working through chant or prayer. An invocation is generally an acknowledgment of the deity and a request that they be present for the working.

inward silence : The silencing of the emotions and thoughts that disturb the effectiveness of a ritual.

iridology : is a homeopathic diagnostic tool. The right and left iris correlates to the right and left body side. The iris is divided into concentric and radial segments. The iridologist interprets iris signs based on pigmentation and pattern change.

Islam : A world religion based on the teachings of Mohammed (570-632 AD) in Mecca and Medina, Saudi Arabia. Islam is the 2nd largest world religion. Islam is composed of two major divisions: the mainstream Sunni and the more radical Shi’ites. The Quran (or, Koran) is considered the uncorrupted holy book.


J.D.: 1. Doctor of Jurisprudence. 2. Juris Doctor.

Jehovah : Incorrect reading of the proper name of Israel’s deity, joining the consonants of YHWH to the vowels of Adonai. A medieval Christian invention, Jehovah became popular in some traditional English translations of the Bible.

jin shin jitsu : A Japanese system of energy work that can be administered to oneself or by a practitioner who places their fingertips along 26 “safe energy locks” similar to the meridian system followed in acupuncture and acupressure.


karma : Karma is formed when you violate your own or another’s domain, creating an energy imbalance seeking resolution. A karmic debt is repaid in kind. For example, if A murders B, B may murder A or A will save the life of B in a subsequent lifetime.

karma cleansing : Deleting old patterns and reactivity, energetically.

ki : Japanese word for the universal life force (same as Chi and Prana).

kidney : The kidneys are located at the rear wall of the abdomen, on either side of the spine below the liver on the right and the spleen on the left. Their function includes removing waste products from the blood and regulating the fluid content.

Kinesiology : ways to obtain information from the position, movement, and tension of body parts, especially from the nerves, muscles, tendons, and joints. A diagnosis of a physical ailment can be obtained by naming the ailment, tensing a body part and noting whether or not the tension remains when the body part is depressed.

kirlian photography (corona-discharge photography, electrography) : Purported means of recording one’s aura. Soviet electrician Semyon Davidovich Kirlian and his wife, Valentina, developed Kirlian photography in the early 1940’s.

Korean medicine :Oriental medicine that encompasses acupuncture and moxibustion.

kundalini : Elemental, feminine energy that is ordinarily asleep and coiled at the human coccyx and whose activation can purify the activator. The word “kundalini” stems from a Sanskrit term meaning “circular, coiled.” The male and female forces are exactly balanced in the Ida and Pingala subtle channels. Everyone uses Kundalini power to think with and to maintain consciousness, but it very seldom rises up the central spinal channel of Sushumna beyond the first center. Various disciplines are used to arouse the “sleeping serpent” to ascend to the higher centers.

kundalini yoga (Shakti Yoga, tantra yoga) : A means of activating kundalini. When kundalini is awake, it enriches human lives emotionally, intellectually, physically, and spiritually. Moreover, its arousal allegedly contributes to the cure of many intractable diseases.


labyrinth : An ancient mystical tradition for walking meditation with varied configurations of winding paths, all of which lead to the center and back out again. The idea is to trust the path and to relinquish control. The process of slowing down and reflecting is said to foster insight, clarity and peace of mind.

L.Ac. (Lic.Ac.) : Licensed Acupuncturist.

lao-tzu : The “founder” of Taoism. Thought of as the author one of the most important and influential Chinese texts: Tao Te Ching.

larrea tridentata herb : Shegoi Native American Indians called it “Shegoi” meaning “Mother of all Plants”. It was revered as their most important plant medicine, naming it their “Medicine Chest”. The plant is Larrea tridentata and it plays a prominent role in the creation stories of the Pima tribe. They believe that Larrea was the first plant placed on the Earth by the creator, shortly after Earth itself was created. The wide array of natural chemicals in Larrea allegedly provides protection against viruses, bacteria, fungi, insects, rodents, weedy competitors, and other potentially destructive agents in the environment.

laserpuncture (laser based acupuncture, laser acupuncture) : Technique characterized by the application of a laser beam to acupoints.

laying on of hands : Contact healing.

levitation : The supernatural phenomenon involving suspending a body in midair without physical bolster.

life energy : vital force.

light (Light, Sound and Color Therapy) : Light is the source of Life. Etheric and physical light and color are excellent therapeutic tools.

lightbody : A vehicle akin to the spirit.

lithomancy : Divination by stones.

living water : Moving water, as in a stream or river, as opposed to water in a pond or pool.

liver : Largest internal organ in the body. The liver, which is part of the digestive system, performs more than 500 different functions, all of which are essential to life. Its functions include digesting fats, storing nutrient reserves, filtering poisons and wastes from the blood, synthesizing a variety of proteins, and regulating the levels of many chemicals found in the bloodstream. The liver is unique among the body’s vital organs in that it can regenerate, or grow back, cells that have been destroyed by some short-term injury or disease.

L.M.T. : Licensed Massage Therapist.

lomi-lomi : Originating in the Hawaiian Islands, Lomi-Lomi is a spiritual form of massage done to ceremonial music in which the practitioner uses sweeping arm gestures and pressure applied with their elbows, forearms and fingertips.

Lourdes (France) : Village in southern France, where purportedly the Virgin Mary appeared before Bernadette. A shrine was built and ever since, numerous miraculous healings have been reported through the drinking of the spring water. Lourdes became one of the major pilgrimage destinations in the world. Bernadette was beatified in 1925 and canonized in 1933 by Pope Pius XI.

lungs : A pair of elastic, spongy organs used for breathing and respiration. In humans the lungs occupy a large portion of the chest cavity from the collarbone down to the diaphragm a dome-shaped sheet of muscle that walls off the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity. Although the words breathing and respiration are sometimes used interchangeably, they have distinct meanings. Breathing is the process of moving oxygen rich air into and out of the lungs. Respiration refers to all of the processes involved in getting oxygen to tissues, including breathing, diffusion of oxygen from the lungs to the blood, transport by the blood, and diffusion from the blood to tissues. Because body cells are constantly using up oxygen and producing carbon dioxide, the lungs work continuously. An adult normally breathes from 14 to 20 times per minute.


magnetic healing : Type of “healing” that involves the flow of “vital energy” to the patient through the mind and body of the practitioner. The expression “Magnetic healing” stems from mesmerism.

magnet therapy (biomagnetics, biomagnetic therapeutics, biomagnetic therapy, biomagnetism, Electro-Biomagnetics, electro-biomagnetics therapy, magnetic energy therapy, magnetic field therapy, magnetic healing, magnetics, magnetic therapies, Magnetic Therapy, magnetotherapy) : Variation of self-healing based on “natural laws.” Magnet therapy allegedly re-establishes order in the human energy system. Its theory posits life energy and meridians and depicts magnets as sources of nature’s healing energy. Some proponents equate magnetic energy, energy, life force, chi, and prana.

magnified healing & Sounds Magnified Healing : establishes a constant flow of energy from your Heart to the Source, the All That Is, the Infinite Mind. The link spirals and brings a deep state of grace pulsing forth from the Source, laying the very foundation for the Ascension process.

mahatma : Sanskrit word for a great man.

mandala : A design of lines, forms and colors, usually circular, used in meditation to focus attention to a single point. Used in Meditation and as an object of worship.

manifesting (conscious thought manifestation, conscious manifestation, creative manifestation, manifestation) : Variable method for wish fulfillment that involves wholehearted visualization and positive thinking. Its postulate is that one can manifest (materialize) one’s wants by consciously using the powers of the mind to design the mind’s reality.

mantra : Ritual sound, word or phrase used as a tool to focus and quiet the mind. Mantra is a sound or set of sounds that are believed to have the unique power to restore us to a state of pristine harmony. Sea also Chant.

massage therapy (massotherapy, somatotherapy) : General term for a range of manual approaches to enhance relaxation, elevate mood, reduce blood pressure, decrease pain and heighten immune responses. It involves the practice of kneading or otherwise manipulating a person’s muscles and other soft or connective tissue.

medicine wheel : Native American sacred circle representing the Universe and the balance of all creation. It is cast to contain, project and raise energy to transform, balance and heal.

meditation : The practice of inverting the mind to pay attention to the inner silence instead of the outer chaos. Other forms of meditation focus on the outer chaos instead. The practice of meditation is accepted in almost all religions, but is encouraged most in Buddhism.

medium : A psychic or sensitive living person whose body is used as a vehicle for communicating with spirits, as in a séance. Also called channels, or channelers.

meridians : Channels within the body where the chi flows. According to Chinese medicine there are 8 major Meridians. Read more on my Meridian page.

metaphysics : A field of abstract thought and philosophy about topics not on the concrete or physical level of understanding. This includes subjects like existence, the soul, being, the supernatural, astral travel, psychicism, and so on.

M.F.A. : Master of Fine Arts.

mindfulness-based stress reduction : A program based on the work of Jon Kabat-Zinn. Participants learn methods such as breathing, gentle yoga stretches, group discussion and support to reduce physical, emotional and spiritual stresses.

mono-diet (monophagic diet) : Any regimen characterized by: (a) restriction
of food intake to one specific kind of food, or (b) restriction of each meal to one specific kind of food (e.g., porridge alone for breakfast, fruits alone for lunch, and meat alone for dinner).

moxabustion : Adjunct to acupuncture characterized by the burning of moxas – preparations of dried leaves from the common mugwort or the wormwood tree – at acupoints to stimulate chi. Practitioners attach moxas to acupuncture needles, place them directly on the skin in the form of small cones, or place the cones on a layer of ginger.

MPRUE (Magnussa Phoenix Reiki Universal Energies) high vibratory Divine energies used for the healing of self and others, personal spiritual evolvement, and manifestation. In the MPRUE system, you use certain techniques, methods and symbols to direct the channeled energies for focused work (energy surgery), for example to remove unhealthy energetic structures, elementals, entities, etc. MPRUE techniques include methods to break up ingrained negative energetic structures at cell level, to remove blockages in the meridians, to open, clean and close the chakras, correct the chakra spin, effective grounding, shielding and energy evocation techniques, a technique to collect and store the energies in your system for later use (directing any energies by intent and will power uses your personal energies), and much more.

M.S.W. : Master of Social Work.

mudra : Hand gestures often depicted on statues of the Buddha. The gestures symbolize different meaning and can force the chi flow in directions wanted (used in meditation and healing).

multiple timelines : Multi-Dimensional Time (Year) Choices Kiara Windrider 1/1/2002. Necessary to understand our awakening & transformation process.


nadi : In Indian medicine a channel within the astral body (similar to the meridians in Chinese medicine).

naprapathy : System of bodywork founded in 1905 by chiropractic professor Oakley G. Smith, author of Modernized Chiropractic (1906). It encompasses nutritional, postural, and exercise counseling. Naprapathic theory holds: (a) that soft connective tissue in a state of contraction can cause “neurovascular interference,” (b) that this “interference” may cause “circulatory congestion” and “nerve irritation,” and (c) that reducing this “interference” (primarily by hand) paves the way for optimal homeostasis. The major form of Naprapathy in the United States is the Oakley Smith Naprapathic Method(TM), taught by the Chicago National College of Naprapathy.

natural : Not human-induced or manmade.

naturopathy : A healing system acknowledging the body’s natural healing power. Fosters health through education and the use of natural substances such as herbs, foods, air and sunshine

N.D. : Doctor of Naturopathy.

near-death experience (NDE) : Any paranormal or supernatural experience had when a person is near death, including experiences when a person thinks he or she has died and returned from death.

neuro-electric acupuncture : (evidence-based acupuncture, physiologic acupuncture): Subject of Beyond Yin and Yang: How Acupuncture Really Works (Warren H. Green, Inc., 1994), by George A. Ulett, M.D., Ph.D. Neuro-electric acupuncture is a nonvitalistic form of electroacupuncture.

neuro-linguistic programming (NLP(TM), neurolinguistics) : Quasi-spiritual behavior-modification (or “performance psychology”) technique whose crux is “modeling,” or “NLP modeling”: imitating the behavior of high achievers. Richard Bandler and John Grinder initially formulated NLP in 1975, reputedly duplicating the “magical results” of several top communicators and therapists.

new scientific electro acupuncture (NSEA) : Form of acupuncture developed in China between 1958 and 1962. NSEA theory does not include any of the metaphysical “explanations” of ancient acupuncture.

nibiru : The soon to return ‘other’ Planet-X of our Solar System. Many articles in our 2000 & 2002 Article Index’s. Books about it by Zecharia Sitchin – The Earth Chronicles: The 12th Planet, etc., Genesis Revisited, Sir Laurence Gardner’s, Bloodline of the Holy Grail, Genesis of the Grail Kings, and The Pleiadian Agenda by Barbara Hand Clow. Mnay articles in our NewsLetters Section.

new age : The modern movement that involves combining metaphysical concepts with the practice of an organized religion.

nirvana : Literally meaning “extinction”. The ultimate goal of Buddhists, characterized as the extinction of both craving and the separate ego. The state of peace and quietude attained by extinguishing all illusions.

NLP : Neuro-Linguistic Programming.

N.M.D. : 1. Doctor of Naturopathic Medicine. 2. Naturopathic Medical Doctor.

nonaccredited (unaccredited) : Without institutional, departmental, or programmatic accreditation whose source is certified by the U.S. Secretary of Education or by the Council for Higher Education Accreditation (CHEA). The U.S. Secretary of Education and CHEA autonomously decide whether: (1) to grant recognition to any functioning or would-be accreditor that expressly wants it, or (2) to withhold or withdraw it from such an entity. In practical terms, recognition constitutes publicizing acceptance of such an entity as an accreditor.

numerology : The study of the magical meanings of numbers and their supposed influence on human life. Using a calculative means of obtaining information about one’s personality, capabilities, and future. Numerological considerations include an individual’s full name, birthplace, and birth date.

nutrient : Any chemical element, chemical compound, or combination of chemical elements and/or chemical compounds that contributes to bodily development or is necessary for life.

nutrition consultation : with a nutritional therapist will involve an in-depth look at your lifestyle, diet and habits, and your skin will be examined for clues. In some cases, samples of sweat, hair and urine will be taken as these can provide a valuable ‘read out’ of your body’s state. Some practitioners use Vega testing or applied kinesiology to allow your body to ‘speak’ of its intolerances.


occult : Study and science of things esoteric, secret, paranormal, and supernatural.

om : A mantra that is said to be the manifest symbol of the cosmic energy or God. (Pronounced Aum)

O.M.D. : Oriental Medical Doctor. (“D.O.M.” stands for “Doctor of Oriental Medicine.”).

omen : A sudden occurrence that is interpreted as being a sign of good or evil. Often it will be small yet significant like a vase falling over or a cup of water spilling.

one brain : from Three in One Concepts…Our whole purpose is to help you integrate body, mind and spirit so you can create the kind of life you really want to live. It can change your perception in any area you want, including stress, performance, health, learning and dyslexia.

oracle : A person or object through which otherworldly entities can be communicated with (similar to channeling). People often see oracles to ask questions or to be given insights to their future.

orthomolecular medicine (orthomolecular nutritional medicine, orthomolecular therapy) : Approach to therapy whose centerpiece is megavitamin therapy. Orthomolecular medicine encompasses hair analysis, orthomolecular nutrition (a form of megavitamin therapy), and orthomolecular psychiatry. Linus Carl Pauling, Ph.D. (1901-1994), coined the word “orthomolecular.” The prefix “ortho-” means “straight,” and the implicit meaning of “orthomolecular” is “to straighten (correct) concentrations of specific molecules.” The primary principle of orthomolecular medicine is that nutrition is the foremost consideration in diagnosis and treatment. Its purported focus is “normalizing” the “balance” of vitamins, minerals, amino acids, and “similar” substances in the body.

osteopuncture : Form of acupuncture named by Ronald M. Lawrence, M.D. In osteopuncture, the needle penetrates the periosteum (the membrane that covers bones) and is usually electrified. The acupuncture points of osteopuncture do not correlate with “meridian points.”

ouija board : A dowsing game board containing all the letters of the alphabet plus numbers from 0 to 9 and “Yes/No.” A sliding pointer held by the player’s fingers, spells out words in answer to questions asked.

out-of-body experience : Experience which occurs when the astral body or etheric body leaving the physical body while the individual is at rest, asleep, near death, or temporarily dead.

ovaries : The female gonads, which produce ova (eggs) and female sex hormones.


paganism : Any religion other than Christianity, Islam, or Judaism. Generally categorized as an earth religion. Most are polytheistic (have more than one god or goddess). Literally means “country dweller”.

palmistry : Hand Reading. The divination practice of psychically reading an individual’s past, present and future, as well as health and character, by studying the lines, shape and texture of the individual’s hands, fingers and wrists.

pancreas : Located in the abdominal cavity and secrets digestive enzymes into the small intestine and also secrets the hormones insulin and glucagon into the blood: where they regulate glucose levels. A digestive organ that produces trypsin, chymotrypsin and other enzymes as pancreatic juices, but which also has endocrine functions in the productions of the hormones somatostatin, insulin and glucagon.

paranormal : Describes events or abilities beyond or above normal human powers or senses.

parathyroid : Are four small pea size glands located behind the thyroid glands. The sole purpose of the parathyroid glands is to regulate the calcium levels so the nervous and muscular systems can function properly.

past-life therapy (Past Life Regression Therapy, PLRT, past lives therapy, regression therapy, transformational therapy) : Form of psychotherapy that emerged in the 1960s and usually involves hypnotism. Past-life “therapists” purportedly trace physical and psychological problems to traumatic events the patient experienced during previous incarnations.

pendulum : A tool often used to communicate with spirits or the divine.

physician : 1. (doc, doctor, medico) One who practices medicine and holds a medical license, particularly an M.D. who is a general practitioner or an internist. 2. A healer, one skilled in healing, or one whose influence is healthful.

pineal gland : A small gland located between the cerebral hemispheres of the brain that secretes melatonin.

pingala : The right astral conduit of the masculine energies from the Kundalini that is wrapped around the Sushumna. It ends at the right nasal sinus.

pitta : The biological fire. Used in Ayurvedic medical typing

pituitary gland : A small gland located at the base of the brain; consists of an anterior and a posterior lobe and produces numerous hormones. The master gland of the endocrine system: the pituitary release hormones that have specific targets as well as those that stimulate other glands to secret hormones.

planets : Solar System: Inner Planets: Mercury, Venus, Mars ; Outer Planets: Saturn, Jupiter, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto.

polarity : Developed by the Osteopath and Chiropractor Dr. Randolph Stone, Polarity Therapy works primarily with the energy fields that underlie the human body. It is based on the energy model that was developed in India three thousand years ago and which is combined with the Western understanding of the structure and function of the body. The resulting combination becomes a very potent therapy, which has a wide application to health at the mental, emotional and physical level.

prana : The life force or energy which animates material forms. It is also present in breath. Also Chi, Ki or Mana in other belief systems.

prayer : which reaches the Source of All by whatever name, is actually how one lives —prayer is the energy of every thought, feeling, motive, word and action. When these are based in Love, the radiance is beautiful to behold! If one wishes to pray for a Soul at a specific occasion or even have a constant prayer registered, “for their highest good” is the most meaningful and really the most accurate sentiment because you don’t know what is in their soul contract. “For my highest good” is the most effective prayer for oneself, too.

precognition : Advance knowledge of future events.

prophet : One who predicts the future, usually receiving his information from a divine source.

projective hand (giving hand) : A term often used to describe your most powerful hand, generally the one you write with.

psychic : A general term describing a person with one or more paranormal abilities such as extrasensory perception, clairvoyance or telepathy.

psychic abilities : Perceiving, receiving, or transferring information without the use of the 5 common senses (sight, touch, hearing, taste, smell).

psychic awareness : The open state of awareness in which the conscious mind can tap into the psychic mind.

psychokinesis (PK, cryptokinesis, telekinesis, telergy) : Alleged production or control of motion, or influencing of an event, mentally, without the use of bodily mechanisms. The word “telekinesis” implies involvement of the occult.

psychospiritual : Pertaining to mental health and spirituality.

psychotherapy (psychotherapeutics, therapy) : Treatment of illness–particularly mental and emotional disorders–or “adjustment” problems mainly with psychological techniques. Its major categories are individual psychotherapy and group psychotherapy. Psychotherapy ranges from specialist therapy to informal conversations, and from science-oriented techniques (e.g., rational-emotive therapy [RET]) to quackery, applied pop psychology, religious counseling, and methods akin to mesmerism. Psychotherapists include clinical psychologists, clinical social workers, “counselors,” psychiatric nurses, and psychiatrists.

P.T. : Physical Therapist.


quality of life : The degree of comfort one derives from one’s actions.

qi (chi, ki) : The vital force underlying the functioning of body, mind, and spirit. According to Qigong theory, Qi encompasses air and internal Qi, or true Qi, which includes essential Qi.

qigong : (chi gong,chi gung) 1. Chinese form of self-healing aiming to stimulate and balance the flow of qi (vital energy) through energy pathways. It involves contemplation, visualization, assumption of postures, and stylized breathing and body movements. The word “qigong” literally means, “breathing exercise”.

quantum touch : involves resonance, intention, attention, breath and innate body intelligence. Using our intention and attention in conjunction with breath and various meditations, practitioners are able to shift the vibration of their hands.

quarters : The north, east, south, and west parts of the circle.


reading : Information given to a person by an intuitive or psychic in response to questions asked. May involve past, present and future events.

R.D. : Registered Dietitian.

receptive hand : The hand that has less power, generally the hand you do not write with. This hand is used less in holding and charging ritual items but receives outside energy which is used to feed the magic.

reflexology : Massage of specific zones on the feet and hands thought to correlate with and increase energy flow to other parts of the body.

reiju : Opening or empowerment.

reiki : Reiki is a healing technique involving the laying-on of hands. It is very old and is thought to have originated as a Tibetan Buddhist practice.

reiki I : Reiki 1 attunement benefits the physical body in opening it up to channel more Reiki energy. Once attuned one will never lose the ability to use Reiki. In Reiki 1 the history of Reiki and the hand positions are taught.

reiki II : In Reiki 2 attunement students attain higher levels of energy and learn 3 Reiki symbols: The Power, the Mental and the Distance Symbol. These can be used to focus energy for specific purposes.

reiki attunement : When attending a Reiki class students get attuned by a Reiki Master which opens him to receive more of the Universal Life Energy. The attunements have a powerful balancing and healing effect.

reiki healing : A Japanese healing technique to tap the Universal Life Energy and use it to heal and balance living beings.

reiki marathon : Conducer to miraculous healing wherein eight to ten Reiki practitioners continuously “treat” an individual for eight to ten hours.

reiki master : This initiation is given to attune persons who have Reiki 2 and wish to teach and initiate others into Reiki. The vibration level of energy is once again raised and the Master symbol is taught.

reiki meditation : Meditation system that involves the “healing power of Reiki.” It can bring on clairvoyance and release “negative energy.”

reiki plus : Offshoot of Reiki devised by David Jarrel, founder of Pyramids of Light, a “Christ-Conscious” church in TN, and the Reiki Plus Institute.

reiki symbols : There are 4 symbols in the “original” Usui Reiki. These can be used to focus the Reiki energy for specific purposes. Other Reiki systems have added further symbols to help achieve the wanted result.

reincarnation : The rebirth of the soul into other physical forms from one life to the next. The new physical form can be animal or human.

rejuvenation : 5 daily Tibetan rites for health, vitality and rejuvenation.

religion : 1. A set of beliefs concerning the nature and purpose of the Universe. 2. An institutionalized system of religious beliefs and worship such as the Christian Religion. 3. Something a person beliefs in devotedly.

rosen method : Uses gentle direct touch and verbal instruction about breathing to encourage the release of chronic muscle tension.

runes : A tool of magic and divination. There are many types of runes, all alphabets of some sort. Anglo-Saxon, and Wiccan runes are just two. They are tossed randomly and then deciphered based on their positioning.


science : A process whose basic purpose is to recognize phenomena and predict their outcome. Fundamental activities include: (a) observing and describing phenomena (b) integrating new data with existing observations; (c) formulating testable hypotheses (d) testing such hypotheses under controlled, repeatable conditions (f) actively seeking criticism from participants in science.

scriptures : The religious writings of a people regarded as sacred.

scrying : Form of divination by gazing into a reflective surface (i.e. a crystal ball).

séance : A gathering of people seeking communication with deceased loved ones or famous historical figures through a medium.

seichim : The original Tibetan system for connecting with the Living Light Energy. A healing practice with attunements to different symbols.

seiki-jutsu : Japanese method wherein a therapist transfers seiki to a patient. Seiki enters the patient through the whorl of hair at the crown.

self-healing : Healing technique involving affirmations, prayer, and/or visualization to tap one’s innate healing potential. Absent congenital or hereditary defects, no exposure to radiation, no ingestion of alcohol and drugs, a nourishing diet, and a genuine desire to enjoy good health, anyone’s basic health is perfect.

shegoi (Larrea Tridentata) : Native American term “Mother of all plants”. Revered as the most important plant medicine. The plant plays a prominent role in the creation stories of the Pima tribe as the first plant placed on the Earth by the creator.

shaman : A shaman is a person with the ability to access experiences, open consciousness, and extend beyond normally-perceived reality, to connect with other realms of consciousness.

shamanism : A religion of some ancient peoples of northern Europe and Asia, characterized by the ability to contact the spirit world. Major facets of Shamanism are animism, possession, prophecy and soul travel.

shanti : Calmness, serenity, peace

shapeshifting : An practice involving changing the human form. It is an art transferred from teacher to puple in secret.

shiatsu : Translates to “pressure with fingers” in Japanese. Massage along various meridians to free up the vital life energy referred to as “ki”.

skandhas : Five elements each individual is composed of.

sonopuncture : application of ultrasound to classical acupuncture points.

soul : Higher multi-dimensional timeless essence.

soulmate : Deep relationship with another person.

soul retrieval : A type of shamanic healing in which energetic parts of your Soul’s energy is returned to it as is appropriate to your Soul integrity.

soular astrology : multi-dimensional Soul based Sun-Moon system of Astrology.

spell : A magical action. The ritual direction of energies towards some certain goal, generally with the use of spoken words.

spirit : The vital force or soul within a living being. Super natural being. Nature of a person or of a group of persons. Genius. Liveliness.

spirit guide : Entity that teaches mediums and guides them in their spiritual work.

spirituality : 1. of the spirit or the Soul. 2. of sacred matters…”

spiritual healing : Spiritual Healing states that health is not just being free of symptoms, but is a state of spiritual, emotional and physical harmony. The Healer acts as a channel for Healing Energies to activate a person’s self-healing powers.

spleen : Flattened, oblong organ that removes disease-producing organisms and old red blood cells from the bloodstream. The spleen is situated in the upper left abdominal cavity.

stargates dimensional doorway : Inter-dimensional Doorways for connections with other levels of information or Self.

stomach : lies in the upper part of the abdominal cavity. The inner stomach surface is folded into ridges. They assist in mixing food and acids and the channelling into the intestines. The stomach also absorbs water, alcohol, and certain drugs.

stone therapy : Massage with heated or cooled smooth selected stones on acupressure points or the Chakras. Used for relaxation and stress reduction.

stroke : A neural deficit that results from an undersupply of oxygen to the brain.

strong holism : Aspect of super naturalistic pantheism, or Spinozism, which holds that nature is divine. The universe is continuous and all things are connected.

stupa : A dome, or pagoda, in which sacred relics are deposited.

subtle energy : vital force.

subliminal messages : messages communicated at a subconscious level thus by-passing the rational/logical center of the individual’s brain.

sufi spiritual healing : The Sufi Spiritual Healing process rejuvenates the body’s life force through several focal points throughout the body.

sutra : A scripture containing the teachings of Buddha.

swedish massage : Bodywork in Western culture. Its originator, Peter Hendrik (Per Henrick) Ling (1776-1839) was a fencing master, physiologist, and poet.

symbol : A sign which represents something else.

synchronicity : Acausal connecting principle. Carl Jung posited synchronicity to describe meaningful but apparently accidental concurrences or sequences of events.


tachyon healing : The word electricity describes a type of energy. The word Tachyon describes the Source of all energies.

t’ai chi : An ancient Chinese meditative and martial art – often referred to as “meditation in motion” – that promotes mental and spiritual development. It involves slow movements and breathing to improve balance, muscle control, breath awareness and concentration. Used to treat back problems, stress, cancer and other chronic conditions.

talisman : A magically charged object used to attract a certain type of energy or a particular type of person.

tantra (Tantra Yoga) : Mode of lovemaking that involves breath control, energy exchange meditations, techniques of sexual healing, and transformative touch.

tao : In a word, everything; the experience of the “universal Way” (“essential reality”).

Taoism : A Chinese religion and philosophy that sees the universe as engaged in ceaseless motion and activity. All is considered to be in continual flux. The universe is intrinsically dynamic. The process is described in terms of Yin and Yang that should be balanced or harmonized through yoga, meditation, etc., to promote spiritual wholeness. According to legend, Taoism founder Lao-tzu wrote Tao Te Ching (“The Way and Its Power”) about 550 BC. His teaching was developed and spread in the third century BC by Chuang-Tzu, whose writings inspired the Tao Tsang, 1200 volumes of Taoist scripture.

tao te ching : Sacred scripture of Taoism.

tarot : A form of divination using a set of cards, usually 76 cards.

TCM : Traditional Chinese Medicine.

telekinesis : A form of psychokinesis which involves moving objects with the mind without ever physically coming in contact with them.

telepathy : Unspoken (psychic) communication between two minds.

testicles : male gonads: produce spermatozoa and male sex hormones.

Thai massage : Follows the 10 main “sen” or energy lines, using pressure on specific points along these lines, as well as compression and stretches. Southern style is characterized by extensive pressure point work and fewer stretches. Northern style is gentler, comprised mostly of stretches. The client is fully dressed, and the massage is performed on the floor.

thalasso therapy : The treatment of illness by sea air and sea water. It encompasses sea bathing, ocean voyaging, and sojourning at seaside resorts.

therapeutic touch : A laying-on-of-hands technique using a meditative process where the practitioner gently disperses blocked energy and channels healing energy to the client.

Th.D. : Doctor of Theology.

third eye : The psychic eye not physically visible but mental. Located in the middle of the forehead.

thyroid : The thyroid gland produces hormones that are essential for normal body metabolism. This gland is located in the lower part of the neck, below the Adam’s apple. The gland wraps around the windpipe (trachea).

Tibetan medicine : (Amchi, Emchi): A system that mostly stems from Ayurveda, Chinese medicine, and Unani. Tibetan medicine encompasses acupuncture and moxibustion and heals both the physical and the psychic being. It includes reincarnation, evil spirits, tutelary gods, and three physiological principles (bodily energies): wind, bile and phlegm. According to Tibetan medical theory, karma strongly influences 101 disorders caused by afflictive emotions (e.g., desire or hatred); another 101 disorders caused by such emotions involve spirits (harmful unseen forces); and it is appropriate to expose certain medical substances to the light of the full moon.

Tibetan rites : 5 Tibetan rites for health, vitality and rejuvenation.

tincture : A liquid usually made by soaking a whole herb or its parts in a mixture of water and ethyl alcohol (such as vodka). The alcohol helps extract the herb’s active components, concentrating and preserving them.

tofu (bean curd): A kind of soy cheese. It is non-dairy and high in protein.

totem : Non-human entity, usually but not always an animal, that symbolizes the spiritual essence, and often the first ancestor, of a group.

trance : One of the most common altered states of consciousness. It is characterized by extreme disassociation often to the point of appearing unconscious.

transactional analysis (TA) : System of psychotherapy created by psychiatrist Eric Berne, M.D. (d. 1970), and the subject of two bestsellers: Games People Play: The Psychology of Human Relationships (1964) and I’m OK–You’re OK (1967). Fundamental to TA is the hypothesis that “ego states”–attitudes during transactions and corresponding sets of behavior patterns–fall into three categories: parental (perceptive or didactic, admonitory), adult (evaluative), and childlike (emotional and creative).

transcendental meditation : Maharishi Mahesh Yogi founded TM in 1957. TM is a means of experiencing “pure awareness.” It involves sitting comfortably, with eyes closed, for 15 to 20 minutes twice a day while one mentally repeats a mantra. In TM, a mantra purportedly is a “thought-sound” that has a known vibratory effect but does not have a designative meaning. The TM teacher chooses a mantra suitable for the initiate.


UFO : Unidentified Flying Objects.

unified chakra meditation : creates a bubble of Light that allows you to handle vaster and vaster frequencies, and acts like a force field. It helps screen out other people’s pictures of reality. Most of you walk around in other peoples’ energies because your bodies are separated. The main thing for Lightworkers is to get in your bodies and figure out what your energy is. The Heart of the Legacy Unified Chakra is the best way that we know of to assist you and your Keepers to follow your Spirit with every breath and every step. We suggest that you do this technique every single time that you notice that you are in the past or the future.

usui reiki (Seichim, Karuna, Kundulini, Sahaja and Taokan Reiki) : Reiki is an ancient healing technique that usually involves the laying-on of hands. It is thousands of years old and is thought to have originated as a Tibetan Buddhist practice.


vajra : Sanskrit. One of the channels in the astral spine

vedas : 1. The four Vedas of the earliest Sanskrit hymns and verses: Rig Veda, Sama Veda, Yajur Veda, and Atharva Veda. 2. Equivalent to shruti, “revelation,” comprising the Vedas, Brahmanas, Aranyakas, and Upanishads as the eternal and unauthored source of Hinduism.

vedic astrology : Ancient system that allegedly helps to resolve doubts concerning children, health, spiritual growth, and other subjects. Suggestions regarding donations, gemstones, herbs, mantras, yantras (mystic diagrams), and rituals are integral to the system.

veganism : The custom of refraining from using, or at least from ingesting, anything derived from animals.

vibrational healing : A broad range of therapies using vibrational essences, sound/frequency, voice and energetic touch to clear the chakras and raise the vibration of the human energy field. Healers work on the subtle energy layers of the auric field to affect change on the physical body.

violet children : or indigo children. Children that don’t respond to tried-and-true techniques and won’t be molded. Some are willful, precocious and brilliant. Others have their own language or become easily detached. Medications do not work; they often have strange eating habits.

virtues : Magical properties of objects like herbs, stones, and creatures as was assigned to them during their divine creation.

visceral manipulation : The practitioner uses gentle hand pressure techniques to work with the body’s visceral system (the internal organs) to locate and alleviate points of tension throughout the body, addressing the relationship between organs and the rest of the physical structure.

visualization : 1. Forming clear mental images often-used in magic to focus and direct energy to a visualized goal. 2. Imagining a scene, a person, or an object with intense clarity, this is often done through a meditation.

vital force (bioenergy, cosmic energy, cosmic energy force, cosmic force, cosmic life energy, cosmic life force, elan vital, energy of being, force of life, force vitale, inner vital energy, internal energy, life, life energy, life force, life force energy, life power, life source energy, nerve energy, nerve force, personal energy, spirit, subtle energy, universal energy, universal life energy, universal life energy power, universal life force, universal life force energy, universal life principle, vital cosmic force, vital element, vital energy, vital energy force, vitality, vital life force, vital life force energy, vitalistic principle, vitality energy, vital life spirit, vital magnetism, vital principle, vital spirit) : An alleged nonmaterial “force” that sustains life.


watsu : Shiatsu administered while the practitioner holds the client in a warm pool of water.

ward : A protection spell.

Wicca : A neo-pagan reconstruction of witchcraft. Most Wiccans call themselves witches, but not all witches are necessarily Wiccan.

witch: A member of the Wicca religion. A practitioner of witchcraft. There are many types and traditions of witches. A witch is not necessarily a Wiccan, though if a Wiccan practices witchcraft they can be called a witch.

witchcraft: The practice of spells and magic, often involving the worship of deities or a god and/or goddess.


yantra yoga (Tibetan Yantra Yoga, Yantra Tibetan Yoga) : Tibetan Buddhist variation of hatha yoga. The benefits of practicing Yantra Yoga include balanced energy and spiritual development.

yin/yang : Taoist terms referring to the active and passive principles of the universe. Yin refers to the female or inactive negative force; Yang to the male or active force. These two polar forces continually interplay with each other. Both are necessary and both must be harmonized for proper function. Yin and Yang flows through the human body so that a balance is required to maintain health.

yoga (from Sanskrit meaning “discipline” ) : Yoga is an ancient philosophy of life as well as a system of exercises that encourages the union of mind, body, and spirit. The ultimate aim of yoga is to achieve a state of balance and harmony between mind and body. There is evidence that yoga was practiced as early as 5,000 years ago, although the first written description is found in the Yoga Sutras, a book from the second century B.C. The Yoga Sutras describe a multifold path to spiritual enlightenment that includes Hatha Yoga, the system of physical exercises that is most often followed by Western yoga practitioners today. The discipline of Hatha Yoga combines deep breathing, physical postures known as asanas, and meditation. Practiced widely by people of all ages, hatha yoga is often recommended for stress reduction and as a way to improve overall health and well-being.


zen Buddhism : A Japanese branch of Mahayana Buddhism believed to have originated in India from the teachings of a Buddhist master, Bodhidharma, about 600 BC, but traced back by advocates to the Buddha himself. Practitioners seek satori (sudden illumination enabling bliss and harmony), which cannot be explained but only experienced. Techniques include zazen (sitting meditation techniques) and koans, which are short riddles or sayings. The koans (which number about 1700) are not designed to have cognitive answers but to promote the experience of Zen.

zodiac : The band of twelve constellations along the plane of the ecliptic through which pass the sun, moon and planets across the sky. Each constellation, or sign, is attributed symbolic significance and associations that describe or affect various aspects of life on Earth.

zone therapy : reflexology

Herbal Glossary


aloe : an herbal plant whose leaves (and ingredients) have various medical uses. For more detailed information, see Aloes in our Nutritional Focus section.

American ginseng : An herbal extract that typically contains 5% ginsenosides as active components; historically used as a tonic, adaptogenic, antioxidant, and for energy. See ginseng.

artichoke : an herbal extract that typically contains 2.5-5% caffeylquinic acid as active components; historically used as a choleretic.

ashwagandha : an herbal extract that typically contains 1.5% with anolids as active components; historically used as a tonic, adaptogenic and for energy.

astragalus : an herbal extract that typically contains 0.4% 4′-hydroxy-3′-methoxyisoflavone 7-sugars as active components; historically used as a immunomodulator. Called huang chi in Chinese medicine, this is one of the world’s greatest immune tonics. The Chinese look at it as being a “chi” tonic — one that increases the body’s resistance and vitality of the immune system. It is a deep immune tonic that increases the “bone marrow reserve”, increasing the body’s ability to produce more immune effector cells (such as t-cells), protecting us from “pathogens,” or what is called in Traditional Chinese Medicine, “pernicious influences.” Astragalus is a popular remedy in China used as a daily tonic when one is not feeling well or if the constitution is weak. Astragalus has a sweet nature, as do most of the tonic herbs.


bilberry : an herbal extract that typically contains 25% anthocyanosides as active components; historically used as an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant.

bioperine® : an herbal extract from the pepper plant that, when consumed along with vitamin and mineral nutrients, increases the bioavailability (the absorption and utilization) of the nutrients. See additional information in product information on BioAssist™ which contains Bioperine®.

bitter orange : (Citrus aurantium) a small citrus tree with globular, dark green immature fruit (see zhi shi) often used as an ornamental house plant. A decorative plant in the U.S., it is cultivated in Europe for the essential oil of its blossoms (neroli oil) and has been used for millennia in China as a medicinal herb.

black walnut : an astringent herb that is used for diarrhea. Because of its high tannin content, it has also been used internally as a anthelmintic and externally for ringworm. It is an excellent traveling companion in areas where water and food may contain bacteria or parasites, leading to gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, abdominal pains, and diarrhea. Use as a preventative several times daily.

borage oil : an herbal extract that typically contains 24% gamma-linolenic acid as active components; historically used as an anti-inflammatory.

boswellin® : an herbal extract that typically contains 65% boswellic acids as active components; historically used as an anti-inflammatory.

broccoli : an herbal extract that typically contains 0.04% sulforaphane as active components; historically used as a phytonutrient and anticarcinogenic.

butcher’s broom : an herbal extract that typically contains 10% saponin glycosides as active components; historically used as an anti-inflammatory.


cascara sagrada : an herbal extract that typically contains 25-30% hydroxyantracene derivatives as active components; historically used as a cathartic.

cat’s claw : an herbal extract that typically contains 3% oxindole alkaloids and 15% total phenolic compounds as active components; historically used as an anti-inflammatory.

chamomile : a pleasantly scented low growing annual herb which has daisy-like flowers that appear in mid-summer. It contains calcium, calanduline and potassium. Azulene can be extracted from its fresh flowers. It also has antiseptic properties. It is also regarded as a sedative. It is useful in nervous or high-strung horses and chamomile can be used on burns, stings, bruises, sweet itch, or dermatitis. German chamomile is an herbal extract that typically contains 1% apigenin and 0.5% essential oil as active components; historically used as a carminative, anti-infective and anti-inflammatory.

chasteberry : an herbal extract that typically contains 0.5% agnuside and 0.6% aucubin as active components; historically used as a menstrual regulator.

citrin® : an herbal extract from an Indian fruit that affects the appetite by making one feel full and not hungry, and affects the metabolism of digested fats and decreasing the accumulation within the body. See our special report on Citrin® or visit our product information on Diet Therapy® which contains Citrin®.

citrus oil : an herbal extract that typically contains 85% d-limonene as active components; historically used as a phytonutrient and anticarcinogenic.


dandelion : the root of the common dandelion of lawns and gardens is a widely-used herb for cooling and cleansing the liver. Use it in a tea form to help with headaches, emotional swings during menstruation, acne, mood swings, and other problems related to “liver heat.”

devil’s claw : an herb with strong anti-inflammatory and pain-killing properties. It is derived from an African plant. It is useful for relieving pain after an initial injury but is also quite useful for chronic conditions such as degenerative joint diseases and arthritis. An herbal extract that typically contains 5% harpagoside as active components.

dong quai : an herb primarily recommended for its blood-tonic properties, is arguably the best selling herb in the entire Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Dong quai (Angelica sinensis) vitalizes the blood and is tonic to the uterus and female generative organs. An herbal extract that typically contains 0.9% ligustilide as active components; historically used as a menstrual regulator.


echinacea : an herbal extract that typically contains 4% echinacosides as active components; historically used as an immunostimulant.

elecampane : an herb whose root is used mostly for pulmonary dysfunction. For more detailed information, see Elecampane in our Nutritional Focus section. We do not, as yet, offer this herb in a product.


feverfew : the common garden feverfew is popularly used in England and other parts of Europe for its anti-inflammatory properties. It is recommended for migraine headaches. It is also recommended for inflammatory types of arthritis. There are at least two double-blind clinical studies to support its effectiveness. An herbal extract that typically contains 0.7% parthenolide as active components; historically used as an anti-inflammatory.

flax oil : an herbal extract that typically contains 58% alpha-linolenic acid as active components; historically used as an anti-inflammatory.


garlic : an expectorant and stimulant herb that consists of strong aromatic compounds that have antiseptic and anti-inflammatory properties. Garlic oil contains vitamins A, B2, B3 and C, sulfur compounds, crotonaldehyde, minerals and trace elements. It is used for both herbal therapy (externally and internally) and as food flavoring. It is useful in respiratory disorders and for soothing burns and sores. In animals the aromatic compounds are excreted through the skin helping to ward off insects. Animal use has included being a fly repellent, a blood cleanser, in the control of sweet itch, in the reduction of worms, in cases of arthritis and rheumatism, and in reducing blood cholesterol and blood pressure. Chinese garlic is an herbal extract that typically contains 1% total allicin potential as active components; historically used as an immunostimulant, antithrombotic and for high cholesterol.

ginger, Hawaiian : an excellent herb for relieving nausea (from any cause, including motion sickness and morning sickness), and generally stimulating circulation. Extensively used in Chinese and western herbal formulas. Ginger has been used in Europe throughout the ages to alleviate painful digestion, flatulence, colic, and diarrhea and as an ingredient in bitters formulas. Often added to laxative herbs to prevent “griping” or intestinal spasms.

ginkgo biloba : one of the most interesting herbs of the last few years. It improves brain function, including memory and alertness. Protects blood vessels, improves circulation, and is a powerful antioxidant. Best herb for ringing in the ears (tinnitis). See additional information in product information on Ginkgo Kola™, which contains ginkgo biloba and gotu kola. An herbal extract that typically contains 24% ginkgo flavone-glycosides and 6% terpene lactones as active components; historically used as a vasodilator and antioxidant.

ginseng : woods-grown American ginseng is planted in its natural habitat and monitored but has no fertilizers or fungicides applied to it. The panacea herb of ancient China. Excellent for people over 50 to improve vital energy, sexual energy, and enhance digestive powers. Often blended with other herbs in formulas. American ginseng is more supportive to the adrenals and not as stimulating as Chinese ginseng. Its use is more appropriate for young people and can be taken for longer periods of time (up to several months). Useful in horses and to calm nervous animals.

goldenseal : this North American native herb is widely known and used for colds, flu, and sinus infections. Lowers inflammation, helps cool infections of the mucous membranes. Useful when blended with echinacea (1 part golden seal to 3 parts echinacea). An herbal extract that typically contains 10% alkaloids and 5% hydrastine as active components; historically used as an astringent and antiseptic.

gotu kola : this ancient Ayurvedic herb is thought to improve memory and mental vigor and act as an adaptogen. Externally, it is effective for burns, wounds, and ulcerated skin conditions. Gotu kola has been used as a sedative for insomnia and as an antispasmodic. See additional information in product information on Ginkgo Kola™, which contains ginkgo biloba and gotu kola.

grape seed : an herbal extract that typically contains 95% proanthocyanidins as active components; historically used as an antioxidant.

green tea : an herbal extract that typically contains 50% polyphenols (Chinese) as active components; historically used as an antioxidant.

Gugulipid® : an herbal extract that typically contains 2.5% guggulsterones as active components; historically used as an anti-inflammatory.

gymnema sylvestre : an herbal extract that typically contains 75% gymnemic acids as active components; historically used reducing glycosuria and for neutralizing blood sugar.


hawthorne : the extract is well-researched and has a long history of use as the herb of choice for strengthening and protecting the cardiovascular system, especially the heart. To be used in extract form long-term, even over a number of years. English hawthorne is an herbal extract that typically contains 3.2% vitexin as active components; historically used as a cardiotonic.

hops fruit : an herbal extract that typically contains 5.2% bitter acids and 4% flavonoids as active components; historically used as a sedative and antimicrobial.

horsetail : an herbal extract that typically contains 10% silicic acid and 7% silica as active components; historically used as an anti-inflammatory and antibiotic.




kava kava : kava is the traditional herbal beverage of the South Seas. In parts of Polynesia, it is consumed every day as a recreational drink that relaxes the body and is slightly euphoric. It is used in different cultures to relieve fatigue, possibly by relaxing and helping to provide a deep sleep. Kava has been touted for its energy-promoting and communication-enhancing effects. An herbal extract that typically contains 29-31% kavalactones as active components; historically used as an analgesic and relaxant.

Korean ginseng : an herbal extract that typically contains 15% ginsenosides as active components; historically used as an adaptogenic. See ginseng.

kudzu : an herbal extract that typically contains 1.5% daizen and 0.95% daidzen as active components; historically used as a diaphoretic.


licorice : an herbal extract that typically contains less than 2% glycyrrhizin as active components; historically used as an anti-ulcer and anti-inflammatory.


ma huang : (Ephedra sinica) an herb containing ephedra as its active constituent. Ephedra stimulates the nervous system. Excess consumption can lead to high blood pressure and CNS stress.

milk thistle seed : the seed-shell of this wonderful herb yields a group of flavonoid-like compounds, collectively called silymarin, which show remarkable virtues in restoring and maintaining liver health. In Europe, it has a centuries-old reputation and many years of scientific study. Milk thistle is used for hepatitis, cirrhosis, any toxic condition of the liver, and by alcoholics, to protect and rebuild the liver. The flavonoids bind to the cell membrane of the liver cell hepatocyte, protection it from damage by toxic chemicals such as pesticides. It also enters the hepatocyte and speeds the production of new enzymes and proteins, so the liver actually is regenerated and restored at an increased rate. It is useful also for psoriasis, according to clinical results. Wildcrafted. An herbal extract that typically contains 80% silymarin as active components; historically used as an anti-hepatotoxic.


nettle : an herbal extract that typically contains 1-2% plant silica as active components; historically used as a diuretic.



passion flower : an herbal extract that typically contains 3.5-4% flavonoids as active components; historically used as a sedative.

Pau d’arco : since information on its anti-fungal and anti-candida properties were made known, this South American herb, derived from a common forest tree, has been tremendously popular. It is the herb of choice for Candidiasis, an increasingly widespread disease of the last several years, due to the overuse of antibiotics and other stressors on our immune function. Scientific studies also show that the active ingredient of pau d’arco, lapachol, can inhibit tumor growth. Also call “ipe roxo,” it is actually the inner bark from a tree of the Bignoniaceae family, though there is some confusion about the tree’s botanical identity: probably several species form the genus Tecoma or Tabebuia are used. Pau d’arco should have a rich red color and an aroma resembling vanilla. It contains quinones that are strongly anti-bacterial and anti-fungal. Plantation-grown Argentinian. An herbal extract that typically contains 3% naphthoquinones as active components; historically used as an anti-inflammatory, anti-androgenic and for prostate disorders.

propolis : a natural bee product, propolis is used by the colony to seal the hives against invaders or bacteria or fungal infection. It has shown strong anti-bacterial, anti-viral, and anti-fungal properties. It is especially useful in the mouth, to prevent gum disease. Externally it can be used for any kind of infection. Internally, it counteracts urinary tract infections, respiratory infections, and it is warming and expectorant (helps remove excess mucus). There are international conferences every year where many scientific papers are delivered on the benefits of propolis. It contains flavonoids and resins as the main active compounds. Bee resin.

pygeum : an herbal extract that typically contains 12-13% phytosterols (African) as active components; historically used for urinary and prostate disorders.

Pycnogenol® : an herbal extract from the bark of particular pine trees grown in southern France, shown to be the most potent antioxidant available. We have more detailed information in our Pycnogenol Question & Answers section and in our Pycnogenol Science section. See additional information in our report on Liqui Pyc™ or from information on our products Liqui Pyc™ or PycC™ (which are equally effective when used in animals such as our Pet PycC™ and Liqui Pet Pyc™). An herbal extract that typically contains 95% proanthocyanidins as the active component.



red wine : an alcoholic beverage made from grapes that typically contains 20% polyphenols as active components; historically used as a antioxidant.

rehmannia : an herbal extract that typically contains 1% glutannic acid as active components; historically used as a cardiotonic.

Reishi mushroom : a mushroom renowned for its powerful immune-strengthening, antiviral, and antitumor properties. This rejuvenative tonic has shown the ability to regulate blood sugar and may help lower cholesterol. It is known to protect the body against free radicals and the effects of radiation. The mushroom extract typically contains 4% triterpenes and 10% polysaccharides as active components; historically used as an immunomodulator.


saw palmetto : an herbal extract that typically contains 95% free fatty acids as active components; historically used as an anti-inflammatory, anti-androgenic and for prostate disorders.

schisandra : an herbal extract that typically contains 9% schisandrins as active components; historically used as an antioxidant.

senna : an herbal extract that typically contains 5% sennosides as active components; historically used as a potent cathartic.

Shiitake mushroom : a mushroom or extract that typically contains 3.2% KS-2 polysaccharides as active components; historically used as an immunostimulant.

Siberian ginseng : this herb is a member of the ginseng family, Araliaceae, like Panax ginseng, but has a different action than Panax. Panax is considered a digestive and “chi” tonic, and Siberian ginseng is considered the “best of the adaptogens”. Panax is also warmer and more stimulating than Eleuthero. Panax is not traditionally recommended to be taken by young people (under 40) for long periods (more than a week or two), because it may be too stimulating, but it is a wonderful warming tonic for older people and can be taken on a regular basis. Both men and women of all ages, on the other hand, can take Eleuthero, regularly. It is by far the best studied in this class of herbs, with the Russians leading the way in research. Twenty million Russian workers take “Eleuthero” (as it is also called) every day: the treatments are sponsored by the government. In studies with thousands of people, eleuthero preparations, when taken consistently, decrease sick days; increase productivity and learning, and combat fatigue. It modulates stress hormones through the ‘pituitary-adrenal’ axis, helping the body to adapt to non-specific stress and supporting adrenal function. It is good for blood-sugar regulation, jet-lag, chronic tiredness, increased endurance, and whenever a person is under stress. An herbal extract that typically contains 0.8% eleutherosides as active components; historically used as an adaptogen. See ginseng.

St. John’s wort : this common European and American weedy plant shows great promise as an antiviral and anti-inflammatory agent. It has long been used as a remedy for mild depression. St. John’s wort is excellent for repairing nerve damage and reducing pain and inflammation. An herbal extract that typically contains 0.3-0.5% hypericin as active components; historically used as an antidepressant.

suma root : an herbal extract that typically contains 5% beta-ecdysterone as active components; historically used as an adaptogen.


turmeric : an spice and herbal extract that typically contains 95% curcumin as active components; historically used as an anti-inflammatory.


usnea : known as the herbal antibiotic. In the laboratory, this common lichen has shown powerful inhibitory activity against strep, staph, and pneumonia infections. It is also good for urinary tract infections, respiratory ailments, and colds.

uva ursi : an herbal extract that typically contains 20-25% arbutin as active components; historically used as an astringent and urinary antiseptic.


valerian : the root is used primarily for sleeplessness, restlessness, anxiety, or tension : especially in the body (as opposed to passion flower, which relaxes the mental and emotional processes). There are scientific studies which show it helps one fall asleep faster, by lessening the time spent trying to get comfortable and tossing and turning. It was long used for hysteria and any emotional upsets. Valerian is best when fresh or freshly dried. Useful for horses by relieving nervous tension on a short-term basis, and to relieve nervousness during an episode of colic. An herbal extract that typically contains 1% valerenic acid as active components; historically used as a sedative.

vitex : one of the best known women’s herbs, it was recommended by Hippocrates (450 B.C.) for the same purposes as today: menstrual imbalances, hormonal difficulties (PMS, menopause), and to bring on mother’s milk. Also used in larger amounts to remove uterine fibroids.


wild Mexican yam : an herbal extract that typically contains 10% diosgenin as active components; historically used as an antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory and is a natural precursor to DHEA. It is commonly incorrectly thought that estrogen can be obtained from wild Mexican yam.

wild oats : a tonifying nervine and sedative herb that is well-known for its anti-addictive effects. It strengthens the nerves and is good for insomnia due to mental exhaustion.

willow bark : an herbal extract that typically contains 7-9% salicin as active components; historically used as an analgesic and antiseptic.



yucca : an herb recommended for it’s anti-inflammatory abilities. It is useful in horses suffering from stiffness and swelling.


zhi shi : the dark green immature fruit of the bitter orange plant. In traditional Chinese medicine it is used as a digestive aid helping to break up stagnant qi (vital energy) and move it downward in the body. It works through the spleen/stomach meridian to relieve nausea, indigestion with gas, and intestinal sluggishness. Key active constituents include synephrine and N-methyltyramine that have been shown in pharmacological studies to have some adrenergic activity. These compounds, structurally similar to ephedrine, have the ability to stimulate some of the body’s adrenoreceptors. Somewhat calming though, zhi shi does not have the negative central nervous effects of ma huang.

Mineral Glossary

Calcium : Calcium is believed to help prevent osteoporosis and colon cancer.

Critical for strengthening bones and teeth. Necessary for proper nervous system and immune function, assists in muscle contraction, blood clotting and blood pressure.

Most people, especially women, find it difficult to get adequate amounts of calcium from diet alone. Many doctors recommend a supplement of 1000 milligrams per day.

Found in milk, yogurt, cheese, fish with bones (such as sardines or salmon), tofu, legumes, broccoli, kale, cabbage, and calcium-fortified orange juice.

Recommendations: Ages 11-24, 1200 milligrams/day. Ages 25-51+, 800 milligrams/day

Recommended Daily doses in: 1 cup of milk (300 mg) PLUS 1 cup chopped broccoli (72 mg) PLUS 1 cup navy beans (127 mg) PLUS 1 cup plain yogurt (447 mg) PLUS 4 ounces canned pink salmon (242 mg)

Chloride : Important for fluid balance in the body and digestion since it is a component of hydrochloric acid found in the stomach.

No supplement is necessary unless told by a physician. Too much table salt increases the risk of hypertension in susceptible individuals.

Found in table salt, soy sauce, and processed foods.

Recommendations: Adult minimum: 750 milligrams/day.

Recommended Daily doses in: the recommended minimum amount is satisfied by a mere quarter-teaspoon of table salt.

Chromium : Chromium picolinate is thought to burn fat and build muscle, but is not supported by research. Works with insulin to help cells use glucose.

Due to eating refined foods, many people don’t get enough chromium. Deficiency symptoms resemble those of diabetes because insulin processing is inhibited. Symptoms include fatigue, increased thirst and urination, and extreme hunger.

Found in unrefined whole grain products, liver, brewer’s yeast, nuts, cheese, and meats.

Recommendations: safe and adequate amounts for everyone over age 7, 50-200 micrograms/day.

Recommended Daily doses in: 1 ounce American cheese (48 mcg) OR 1 cup cooked peas (60 mcg) OR 2 eggs (26 mcg each).

Copper :

Helps make red blood cells, is part of several body enzymes, and is important for the absorption of iron.

Found in shellfish, nuts, seeds, legumes, whole grain products, liver, and meats. Chocolate contains moderate amounts of copper. People with copper pipes get significant amounts of copper in their drinking water.

Copper can be depleted if too much zinc (50 milligrams per day for time) is taken.

Recommendations: Safe and adequate amounts for adults: 1.5-3.0 milligrams/day.

Recommended Daily doses in: 1 Alaska King crab leg (1.57 mg) OR ½ cup lentils (0.25 mg) PLUS 1 cup raisin bran (0.25 mg) PLUS ½ cup roasted almonds (0.96 mg).

Fluoride :

Helps form bones and teeth, and helps make teeth decay-resistant. About half of all U.S. residents drink fluoridated water.

Found in fluoridated drinking water, seafood, and tea.

Too much fluoride promotes permanently discolored teeth. Don’t take fluoride supplements without consulting a physician or dentist.

Recommendations: Safe and adequate amounts for children ages 7-18: 1.5-2.5 milligrams/day. Safe and adequate amounts for adults: 1.5-4.0 milligrams/day.

Recommended Daily doses in: in drinking water or through supplements.

Iodine :

Regulates growth and metabolic rate as a component of thyroid hormones. Though rare in the U.S., deficiency can result in goiter, the enlargement of the thyroid gland.

Iodine is found in the soil near coastal areas, so vegetables grown near salt water will also contain iodine. Iodized table salt, salt-water fish.

Recommendations: Ages 11-51+, 150 micrograms/day

Recommended Daily doses in: iodized salt or vegetables grown in iodine-rich soil.

Iron : Important part of red blood cells. Iron absorbs better if eaten with vitamin C rich foods. Iron deficiency is common, especially in women since they lose iron in menstrual blood. Deficiency can lead to anemia, with fatigue symptoms, weakness and ill health. Too much iron may increase the risk of heart disease in men.

Found in red meat, fish, poultry, eggs, legumes, fortified cereals.

Recommendations: Men ages 11-18, 12 milligrams/day. Men ages 19-51+, 10 milligrams/ day. Women ages 11-50, 15 milligrams/day. Women ages 51+, 10 milligrams/day.

Recommended Daily doses in: 1 small extra-lean hamburger (3.14 mg) PLUS 1 cup dry roasted mixed nuts (5.07 mg) PLUS 1 egg (0.72 mg) PLUS ½ cup tofu (6.65 mg) OR 1 cup Kellogg’s raisin bran (22.2 mg).

Magnesium : Part of enzymes in the body, helps build bones, teeth and proteins for proper function of nerves, muscles and immune system. Magnesium deficiency is rare, but people with diabetes, chronically on diuretics, and chronic alcoholics are at greater risk. Symptoms may include weakness, confusion and muscular spasms.

Chocolate and cocoa are good source of magnesium. Legumes, nuts, whole grain foods, green vegetables and seafood also contain magnesium.

Recommendations: Men ages 14-18, 410 milligrams/day. Men ages 19-30, 400 milligrams/day. Men ages 31-70+, 420 milligrams/day. Women ages 14-18, 360 milligrams/day. Women ages 19-30, 310 milligrams/day. Women ages 31-70+, 320 milligrams/day.

Recommended Daily doses in: 1 cup navy beans (107 mg) PLUS 4 ounces halibut (121 mg) PLUS 1 cup brown rice (84 mg) PLUS 1 cup raisins (48 mg) PLUS ½ cup cooked spinach (65 mg)

Manganese : Part of many body enzymes. Deficiency or toxicity are rare.

Found in many foods, especially nuts, leafy green vegetables, tea and unrefined cereals and grain products.

Recommendations: Safe and adequate amounts, ages 11-51+: 2-5 milligrams/day.

Recommended Daily doses in: Any combination of healthy foods.

Molybdenum : Part of many body enzymes. Deficiency or toxicity is rare.

Found in milk, legumes, liver, unrefined cereals and grain products.

Recommendations: Safe and adequate amounts for ages 11-51+: 75-250 micrograms/day.

Recommended Daily doses in: the course of a healthy diet.

Phosphorus : Works with calcium to form bones and teeth, energy in the body, is part of cell membranes. Phosphorus is present in DNA and RNA, the body’s genetic material. The second most abundant mineral in the body, after calcium. Too much phosphorus can deplete calcium in the blood. Avoid excess consumption of soft drinks, which contain phosphorus.

Found in protein-rich foods, such as meat, poultry, fish, eggs and milk.

Recommendations: Ages 9-18, 1250 milligrams/day. Ages 19-70, 700 milligrams/day.

Recommended Daily doses in: 1 chicken breast (392 mg) PLUS 1 cup skim milk (247 mg) PLUS 1 egg (89 mg).

Potassium : Important for nerve transmission, muscle contraction, and balance of fluids. People eating recommended five fruit and vegetables servings a day get enough potassium. Vomiting or diarrhea, and steroids or diuretics may deplete the body. Symptoms of deficiency are muscle weakness, confusion and fatigue.

Found in fresh foods, including meat, milk, whole grain, fruits, and legumes.

Recommendations: Adult minimum: 2000 milligrams/day.

Recommended Daily doses in: 4 ounce sirloin steak (400 mg) PLUS 1 cup milk (400 mg) PLUS ½ cup kidney beans (329 mg) PLUS 1 baked potato with skin (844 mg) PLUS 1 slice whole wheat bread (70 mg)

Selenium : Powerful antioxidant that works to protect cells from damage, important for cell growth. Selenium is currently being investigated for its potential to prevent cancer. Taking high doses, 1 milligram or higher, can cause toxicity symptoms, including: nausea, diarrhea, fatigue, nerve damage, hair loss, and nail changes.

Found in seafood, meats, grain products, and seeds.

Recommendations: Ages 15-18, 50 micrograms/day. Men ages 19-51+, 70 micrograms/day. Women ages 19-51+, 55 micrograms/day.

Recommended Daily doses in: 1 chicken breast (47 mcg) PLUS 1 egg (15 mcg) PLUS 1 slice whole wheat bread (10 mcg)

Sodium : for nerve transmission, muscle contraction, and balance of fluids. Sodium supplementation is rarely necessary, even under normal conditions of exercise and sweating. Too much sodium has been linked to hypertension in some people who have a genetic sensitivity. Most people get far too much sodium in their diets, due mainly to over-use of table salt. It is recommended that adults aim to keep their total sodium intake below 2400 milligrams per day, or about 1 teaspoon of salt.

Found in table salt, soy sauce, and processed foods.

Recommendations: Adult minimum: 500 milligrams/day

Recommended Daily doses in: in regular daily diet.

Zinc : Part of many enzymes in the body, helps with tissue growth and wound healing, important for taste perception. Although some people suggest using zinc supplements to fight the common cold, results of scientific studies have been contradictory. People over age 65 have a greater risk of deficiency due to a reduced ability to absorb zinc, disease states, or use of diuretics or iron supplements. Zinc supplements may be required if symptoms appear, including anorexia, slow wound healing, impaired taste sensation or reduced immune function.

Found in protein-rich foods, including meat, poultry, and fish.

Recommendations: Men ages 11-51+, 15 milligrams/day. Women ages 11-51+, 12 milligrams/day.

Recommended Daily doses in: 1 small extra-lean hamburger (7.29 mg) PLUS 1 cup chickpeas (2.51 mg) PLUS 1 cup milk (0.98 mg) PLUS 2 slices whole wheat bread (1.1 mg) PLUS 1 cup plain yogurt (2.18 mg) PLUS 2 eggs (1.0 mg)

Vitamin Glossary

Vitamins : A term applied to a group of trace substances occurring naturally in foods and which are necessary for normal nutrition. Deficiency can cause defective growth and poor health, leading to the body becoming susceptible to disease, deformity, pain and suffering.

vitamin A : Also called retinol or retinoic acid. The body converts carotenes from plant foods into vitamin A in the body. Usually taken in ample quantity in a normal diet and stored in the liver.

Found in carrots, egg yolk, liver, butter, milk, cheese, leafy green vegetables (such as spinach, kale, turnip greens, collards and Romaine lettuce), broccoli, dark orange fruits and vegetables (such as apricots, carrots, pumpkin, sweet potatoes, papaya, mango and cantaloupe), red bell pepper. Cod liver oil and halibut oil are probably the two riches sources.

Important for good vision, especially at night. Also affects immunity, reproduction, and the growth and maintenance of cells of the skin, gastrointestinal tract and other mucus membranes.

Taking high-dose supplements (daily dose over 15,000 micrograms RE, or about 75,000 IU) can cause toxicity, which can result in bone fractures; joint pain; headaches; skin that is dry, itchy or peeling; brittle nails; hair loss; nausea and vomiting; diarrhea; fatigue; blurred vision; liver failure; hemorrhages.

Deficiency causes an inflammation of the eyes, night blindness, skin problems, poor teeth, and lack of vitality in the tissues leading to localized inflammation. Normal cooking will not destroy it.

Recommendations: Men ages 11-51+, 1000 micrograms RE/day (equivalent to about 5000 IU). Women ages 11-51+, 800 micrograms RE/day (equivalent to about 4000 IU) (RE=retinol equivalent, the standard measure for vitamin A).

Recommended Daily doses in: ½ cup sweet potatoes (2800 mcg), OR one carrot (2000 mcg), OR 1 oz fortified cornflakes (635 mcg) PLUS 1 cup milk (150 mcg) PLUS 1 cup raw spinach (375 mcg).

vitamin B1 : Also called vitamin F, thiamin and thiamine.

Found in pork, liver, legumes, nuts, whole grain or enriched breads and cereals.

Important for producing energy from carbohydrates, and for proper nerve function.

Deficiency causes a muscular weakness, edema and heart arrhythmias. Eat whole meal bread, brown rice, liver, and egg yolk etc, especially needed for pregnant women.

Recommendations: Men ages 14-70+, 1.2 milligrams/day. Women ages 14-18, 1.0 milligrams/day. Women ages 19-70+, 1.1 milligrams/day.

Recommended Daily doses in: 1 broiled pork chop (0.66 mg) PLUS 1.25 cups corn flakes (0.36 mg) OR 1 baked potato with skin (0.24 mg) PLUS ½ cup lentils (0.17 mg) PLUS 1 cup raisin bran (0.60 mg).

vitamin B2 : Also called Riboflavin.

Present in lean meats, yogurt, cheese, milk, eggs, liver, yeast, broccoli, spinach, beer and whole grain or enriched breads and cereals.

Contributes to energy production.

Light can destroy vitamin B2, so purchase milk in opaque containers.

Deficiency is thought to cause inflammation of the cornea, lip sores and dermatitis.

Recommendations: Men ages 14-70+, 1.3 milligrams/day. Women ages 14-18, 1.0 milligrams/day. Women ages 19-70+, 1.1 milligrams/day. Ages 71+, 15 micrograms/day (equivalent to about 600 IU).

Recommended Daily doses in: 1 cup raisin bran cereal (0.7 mg) PLUS 1 cup milk (0.34 mg) PLUS 1 egg (0.25 mg) OR one small extra-lean hamburger (0.36 mg) PLUS 1 cup plain yogurt (0.49 mg) PLUS ½ cup fresh cooked spinach (0.21) PLUS 1 cup cottage cheese (0.36 mg).

vitamin B3 : Also called nicotinic acid, nicotinamide and niacin.

Present in egg yolk, liver, yeast, and a range of animal and vegetable foods. The body can manufacture vitamin B3 from the amino acid tryptophan, so any food high in tryptophan, such as turkey, will contribute to vitamin B3 intake.

Contributes to energy production. Important for health of skin, digestive tract and nervous system.

In high doses, nicotinic acid can cause dilation of blood vessels and a potentially painful tingling called a “niacin flush.” High doses of niacin can cause diarrhea, nausea and vomiting. In the long-term, liver damage may result.

Recommendations: Men ages 14-70+, 16 milligrams NE/day. Women ages 14-70+, 14 milligrams NE/day (NE=niacin equivalent).

Recommended Daily doses in: one small extra-lean hamburger (6.63 mg) PLUS ½ cup Grape Nuts cereal (9.98 mg) OR 1 cup rice (2 mg) PLUS 4 ounces broiled salmon (7.5 mg) PLUS 1 tablespoon peanut butter (4.22 mg) PLUS 1 bagel (3.1 mg)

vitamin B6 : Also called pyridoxine.

Helps the body make red blood cells, converts tryptophan to niacin, and contributes to immunity and nervous system function. Used in metabolism of proteins and fats.

Present in liver, yeast, fish, poultry, legumes, leafy green vegetables, potatoes, bananas, and fortified cereals.

Deficiency can cause wasting or ageing of the skin, hair, sweat glands and nerve tissue with young children more susceptible than adults. Loss of weight, anemia, irritability, and in severe cases, convulsions can occur.

High-dose vitamin B6 supplements have been recommended to help PMS, carpal tunnel syndrome and sleep disorders. However, taking very high doses for months or years can cause permanent nerve damage. Recommended upper limit is 100 milligrams per day for adults.

Recommendations: Men ages 14-50, 1.3 milligrams/day. Men ages 51-70+, 1.7 milligrams/day. Women ages 14-18, 1.2 milligrams/day. Women ages 19-50, 1.3 milligrams/day. Women ages 51-70+, 1.5 milligrams/day.

Recommended Daily doses in: 1 chicken breast (1.0 mg) PLUS ½ cup cooked spinach (0.22 mg) PLUS 1 cup brown rice (0.28 mg), OR 1 baked potato with skin (0.69 mg) PLUS 1 banana (0.66) PLUS 4 ounces lean sirloin (0.51 mg).

vitamin B12 : Also called cobalamin.

Brewers yeast is the main source but mainly manufactured due to the large quantities required for an extract. Found in animal foods, such as meats, fish, poultry, milk, cheese and eggs or in fortified cereals.

Important for proper nerve function. Works with folate, converting it to an active form. Helps make red blood cells, and helps metabolize proteins and fats. Contains cyanide and cobalt and effective in the treatment of anemia.

Vegetarians, especially vegans who eat no animal foods, need to look for fortified sources, such as fortified soymilk, or supplements of vitamin B12. The elderly often have difficulty absorbing vitamin B12, and can easily develop deficiencies. Deficiency may result in anemia, nerve damage, and hypersensitive skin. Although vitamin B12 injections have been rumored to increase energy, there’s no scientific evidence that this is true.

Recommendations: Ages 14-70+, 2.4 micrograms/day.

Recommended Daily doses in: 1 chicken breast (0.6 mcg) PLUS 1 hard-boiled egg (0.55 mcg) PLUS 1 cup plain low-fat yogurt (1.37 mcg) OR 1 cup milk (0.92 mcg) PLUS 1 cup raisin bran (1.64 mcg).

vitamin C : Also called ascorbic acid.

Found in oranges, lemons, grapefruits and other citrus fruits, green vegetables, milk, meat, strawberries, papaya, cantaloupe, peppers, broccoli, potatoes and tomatoes.

Important for immune function. Acts as an antioxidant to keep the body healthy. Strengthens blood vessels and capillary walls, makes collagen and connective tissue that hold muscles and bones together, helps form scar tissue, keeps gums healthy, and helps the body absorb iron from foods.

May be destroyed by high temperatures and lost in storage. Smoking depletes vitamin C, so smokers need 100 milligrams per day. High doses (over 1000 milligrams) can cause diarrhea and may cause kidney stones.

Deficiency can lead to symptoms of scurvy, muscular weakness, bleeding under the skin, swelling and inflammation of the gums, loss of teeth and damage to joints. Can occur in babies fed only on artificial foods.

Recommendations: Ages 15-51+, 60 milligrams/day.

Recommended Daily doses in: 1 cup grapefruit juice (72 mg) OR 1 kiwi fruit (74 mg) OR 1 cup chopped broccoli (116 mg) OR 1 baked potato with skin (26 mg) PLUS 1 cup tomato juice (45 mg).

vitamin D : Only found in a few foods such as cod liver oil and other fish oils, and egg yolk, fortified milk, cheese and fortified cereals. The body can make vitamin D on its own, provided it gets enough sunlight. By exposing face, hands and forearms for between 5 and 30 minutes two or three times per week, most people can manufacture all the vitamin D they need. Sunscreen blocks the type of rays needed to produce vitamin D. Vitamin D production plateaus after a short amount of time in the sun. More exposure won’t produce extra vitamin D, just skin damage.

Needed for growth and particularly valuable for young children. Increases absorption of calcium and phosphorus, leading to stronger bones and teeth. Vitamin D absorbs in the small intestines so people with diseases preventing absorption (liver disease, cystic fibrosis, Whipple’s disease and sprue) may develop vitamin D deficiency.

Excess vitamin D from supplements (greater than 50 micrograms) can result in kidney damage, kidney stones, weakened bones and muscles, and possibly death.

Deficiency causes rickets with softening and irregular growth of bones, swollen joints, distorted limbs, chest deformity and other malfunctions. Overdosing can also be damaging, causing over calcification and phosphorus in the blood, with bones and teeth becoming over calcified, kidney stones etc.

Recommendations: Ages 11-24, 10 micrograms/day (equivalent to about 400 IU)
Ages 25-50, 5 micrograms/day (equivalent to about 200 IU). Ages 51-70, 10 micrograms/day (equivalent to about 400 IU). Ages 71+, 15 micrograms/day (equivalent to about 600 IU) (IU=International Unit).

Recommended Daily doses in: 2 cups milk (200 IU), OR 1 cup milk (100 IU) PLUS 1 cup cornflakes (40 IU) PLUS 1 egg (25 IU) PLUS 1 tsp margarine (20 IU) PLUS 3 ounces salmon with bones (10 IU).

Astronomy Glossary




cepheid : A pulsating variable star. This type of star undergoes a rhythmic pulsation as indicated by its regular pattern of changing brightness as a function of time.

coma : A spherical cloud of material surrounding the head of a comet. This material is mostly gas that the Sun has caused to boil off the comet’s icy nucleus. This gas shines both by reflected sunlight and light emitted by excited molecules.

comet : A chunk of frozen gasses, ice, and rocky debris that orbits the Sun. A comet nucleus is about the size of a mountain on earth. When a comet nears the Sun, heat vaporizes the icy material producing a cloud of gaseous material surrounding the nucleus, called a coma. As the nucleus begins to disintegrate, it also produces a trail of dust or dust tail in its orbital path and a gas or ion tail pointing away from the Sun.


dust grains : Not the dust one finds around the house, which is typically fine bits of fabric, dirt, or dead skin cells. Rather interstellar dust grains are much smaller clumps, on the order of a fraction of a micron across, irregularly shaped, and composed of carbon and/or silicates. Dust is most evident by its absorption, causing large dark patches in regions of our Milky Way Galaxy and dark bands across other galaxies. The exact nature and origin of interstellar dust grains is unknown, but they are clearly associated with young stars.


emission nebula : A type of nebula that shines by emitting light when electrons recombine with protons to form hydrogen atoms. The electron frequently approaches the proton in steps emitting energy as light as it gets pulled in. In one of the most common “steps,” the recombining electron emits a photon of red light. Since many atoms in the nebula do this all at once, the nebula appears red in color. This type of nebula is created when energetic ultraviolet light from a hot star shines on a cloud of hydrogen gas, stripping away electrons from the atoms (ionization). The free electrons can then begin the process of recombination. Plural of nebula: nebulae.


fusion : A process where nuclei collide so fast they stick together and emit a great deal of energy. In the center of most stars, hydrogen fuses together to form helium. Fusion is so powerful it supports the star’s enormous mass from collapsing in on itself, and heats the star so high it glows as the bright object we see today. Scientists here on earth are trying to make nuclear fusion in the laboratory a useful energy source.


galaxy : A system of about 100 billion stars. Our Sun is a member of the Milky Way Galaxy, which is sometimes just designated by capitalization: Galaxy. There are billions of galaxies in the observable universe. Exactly when and how galaxies formed in the Universe is a topic of current astronomical research.


H II region : A region of hot gas surrounding a young star or stars that is mostly ionized. The energetic light from these young stars ionizes the existing gas. This region typically appears red as it glows with the photons emitted when electrons recombine with hydrogen protons.

helium : The second lightest and second most abundant element. The typical helium atom consists of a nucleus of two protons and two neutrons surrounded by two electrons. Helium was first discovered in our Sun. Roughly 25 percent of our Sun is helium.

hydrogen : The lightest and most abundant element. A hydrogen atom consists of one proton and one electron. A hydrogen nucleus is just a single proton. Hydrogen composes about 75 percent of the Sun but only a tiny fraction of the Earth.


infrared : Light that is so red humans cannot see it. A band of the electromagnetic spectrum between the visible and the microwave. Photons of infrared light are less energetic than photons of visible light.





Messier, Charles : While hunting for comets in the skies above France, 18th century astronomer Charles Messier made a list of the positions of about 100 fuzzy, diffuse looking objects which appeared at fixed positions in the sky. Although these objects looked like comets, Messier knew that since they did not move with respect to the background stars they could not be the undiscovered comets he was searching for. These objects are now well known to modern astronomers to be among the brightest and most striking gaseous nebulae, star clusters, and galaxies. Objects on Messier’s list are still referred to by their “Messier number”. For example the Andromeda Galaxy, the 31st object on the list, is known as M31.


neutrino : A small particle that has no charge and is thought to have very little mass. Neutrinos are created in energetic collisions between nuclear particles. The universe is filled with them but they rarely collide with anything.

neutron star : The imploded core of a massive star produced by a supernova explosion. (typical mass of 1.4 times the mass of the sun, radius of about 5 miles, density of a neutron.) According to astronomer and author Frank Shu, “A sugarcube of neutron-star stuff on Earth would weigh as much as all of humanity! This illustrates again how much of humanity is empty space.” Neutron stars can be observed as pulsars.



planet : A spherical ball of rock and/or gas that orbits a star. The Earth is a planet. Our solar system has nine planets. These planets are, in order of increasing average distance from the Sun: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto.


QSO – Quasi Stellar Object, also Quasar : QSOs are objects that, at first glance, appear as normal stars. Upon closer inspection, however, QSOs have very large redshifts (i.e. the light they emit is strongly displaced toward the red end of the spectrum). Although their exact nature is controversial, they are commonly considered to be extremely distant, unusually bright nuclei of galaxies. If so, then the light we see from them would have been emitted when the universe was a fraction of its present age.


redshift : When the light an object emits is displaced toward the red end of the spectrum it is said to be redshifted. In general, photons of light that are emitted at a source at one energy and detected by an observer at a lower energy are redshifted. Often, the redshift of an object can be measured by examining atomic absorption or emission lines in its spectrum. Redshifts can be caused by the motion of a source away from an observer. For distant objects, redshifts can be caused by the expansion of the Universe.

reflection nebula : A type of nebula that shines by reflected light. Bright stars near reflection nebulae emit light into the region that is reflected by the large amount of dust there. The size of the dust grains causes blue light to be reflected more efficiently than red light, so these reflection nebulae frequently appear blue in color. Plural of nebula: nebulae.


solar wind : The wind from the Sun. More specifically, particles, usually electrons and protons, continually streaming away from the corona of the Sun. The solar wind is extremely sparse, containing only a few fast-moving particles per cubic centimeter at the Earth. The exact geometry and extent of the solar wind is not well known.

star : A ball of mostly hydrogen and helium gas that shines extremely brightly. Our Sun is a star. A star is so massive that its core is extremely dense and hot. At the high stellar core temperatures, atoms move so fast that they sometimes stick to other atoms when they collide with them, forming more massive atoms and releasing a great amount of energy. This process is known as nuclear fusion. Scientists have not yet been able to use nuclear fusion as a power source here on earth, but they are trying!

supernova : The death explosion of a massive star, resulting in a sharp increase in brightness followed by a gradual fading. At peak light output, supernova explosions can outshine a galaxy. The outer layers of the exploding star are blasted out in a radioactive cloud. This expanding cloud, visible long after the initial explosion fades from view, forms a supernova remnant.



ultraviolet : Light that is so blue humans cannot see it. A band of the electromagnetic spectrum between the visible and the X-ray. Photons of ultraviolet light are more energetic than photons of visible light.



white dwarf : A star that is the remnant core of a star that has completed fusion in its core. The sun will become a white dwarf. White dwarfs are typically composed primarily of carbon, have about the radius of the earth, and do not significantly evolve further.


X-ray : Light that is so blue humans cannot see it. A band of the spectrum between the ultraviolet and the gamma-ray. Photons of X-ray light are more energetic than photons in the ultraviolet but less energetic than photons in the gamma ray. X-radiation can go through human skin tissue but is stopped by dense bones. This property thus makes X-rays valuable in medicine.